Saturday, August 31, 2019
Why are some countries in debt? What impact does it have on development? What is debt? On an international scale, debt is the owing of money from one country to another or an international organisation as a result of previous borrowing because of need. Why are some countries in debt? Countries can be in debt for different reasons: 1) Trade deficit When a country's imports are worth more than a country's exports, the country loses money and therefore it is forced to borrow money from other countries or international organisations to try and cover the losses. 2) Natural disasters and tied aid After a natural disaster, a country may become dependent on the aid of another country for a short period of time. However sometimes the aid given is tied aid where the country receiving aid may have to pay back the money given (possibly with interest). They are therefore in debt to the donor country/organisation. 3) Money mismanagement If a country mismanages their use of money (most likely through the government) and spends money unnecessarily while taking out loans to cover the cost, the country can end up in debt. The effect of debt on development When a country is in debt, a majority of the money it generates is used to pay back money to the donor country. This means that there is little money being invested into the social infrastructure of the country, so healthcare and education levels remain the same or get worse overall slowing down or sometimes even reverse developing a country as literacy rates may fall and not enough money could be invested in improving healthcare. Ways of solving debt problems Cancelling debt Ã¢â¬â What are the advantages and disadvantages? Advantages Ã¢â¬â The advantages of cancelling debt are that it can allow a poor country to start investing the money it gains into its development/ social infrastructure rather than paying back debt to developed countries. This can overall help to fight poverty and reduce the development gap. In 2005, Zambia had $4 million of debt cancelled and in 2006 it had enough money to pay for free healthcare for millions of people living in rural areas, improving the quality of life. In Tanzania, money saved from debt cancellations allowed the government to abolish primary school fees in 2001. As a result, the number of students that go to primary school doubled. These examples show that by cancelling debt, it allows money to be invested in education which can lead to more people getting jobs, overall contributing to a country's economy, improving the GDP and by investing in healthcare, the life expectancy and infant mortality rate can also decrease. Summary: -a country can invest in its development -It reduces poverty and can reduce the development gap -examples include Zambia and Tanzania Disadvantages Ã¢â¬â Although cancelling debt can help a country to develop, there are also some disadvantages. Firstly, the donor country loses a significant amount of money which can slightly damage its economy. Developing countries which have had their debt cancelled could start taking out more loans, in the hope of having debt gained from that cancelled as well (This however is unlikely as eventually developed countries will eventually see when a country is not worth giving money to and in a time of crisis, nothing will be given) When a loan is taken, the money should be returned and if it is not, it could give the country which did not pay back, a bad reputation. Summary: Ã¢â¬â The donor country loses money Ã¢â¬â Countries could take out more loans Ã¢â¬â A loan should be paid back if taken in the first place Debt for nature swaps Deforestation largely takes place for economical needs of a country to try and pay off debt. A debt for nature swap is an agreement between a developing nation in debt and one or more of its creditors. In a debt for nature swap, the country or organisation owed money, writes off an amount of debt in return for a certain amount of environmental protection. They were first established in the 1980s in the attempt of solving two problems with one agreement: 1) to minimize the debt of developing nations and 2) to minimize the environmental destruction that frequently takes place in developing countries. A company called WWF (world wide fund for nature) which cooperates with countries such as UK and USA has helped to structure and design many debt for nature swaps. In 2008 they helped to structure and facilitate one of the largest debt for nature swaps in Madagascar's history in which 20 million dollars was committed to preserve the country's rich biodiversity. Also in 2008, the USA reduced Peru's debt by $25 million in exchange for conserving its rainforests. Debt for nature swaps are extremely beneficial because they not only cancel the debt of a country allowing them to invest in development, but it helps to protect the environment and conserve some of the world's rainforests. This makes it better than just cancelling debt.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Continuing Academic Success is extremely important to those who plan to make advancements in their chosen career fields. It provides the opportunity to keep current with ideas, techniques, and advancements that are being made in their area of employment. We will address the importance of setting achievable goals, the importance of learning styles in academic success and the validity of ethics and academic integrity in helping to achieve continuing academic and professional success. Setting Goals Distinct, clearly defined goals that can be measured will allow a person to take pride in accomplishing the goals they have set. They are able to see clear forward progress in what otherwise might seem a long drawn out process. Setting goals allows one to choose where they want to go in school or in a career and what they want to achieve. Knowing what they want to achieve, helps them know what they have to concentrate on and improve. Goal setting gives one long-term vision and short-term motivation. By setting goals students and employees can: improve their academic and career performance, increase their motivation to achieve, increase pride and satisfaction in performance and improve their self- confidence. Setting goals and measuring their achievements allow the goal setters to see what they have done and what they are capable of doing. Seeing their results gives them confidence and assurance and motivation they need to believe they can achieve higher goals. Effective goal setting requires one to express goals positively, be accurate, set priorities, keep goals small, set goals one can control and set specific measurable goals. Writing down your goals symbolizes a real commitment to strive to make them reality. My educational goal is to increase pride and satisfaction in performance while studying to obtain my degree. Knowing the importance of writing as a form of communication, it my desire to improve my writing skills in an effort to better express my ideas in a manner that will be clear, coherent and understandable. My career goa is to obtain my AssociateÃ¢â¬â¢s Degree in Health Care Administration by the summer of 2016. Goal setting provides a positive means to help motivate the learner. Motivation is a necessary part ofÃ providing the learners with initiative and incentive to accomplish the goals they have established. Motivation is that drive or desire to do are accomplish a given task. Ã¢â¬Å"A common lay personÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of motivation is that it involves a strong personal interest in a particular subject or activity. Students are motivated and they learn and achieve because of this strong interest.Ã¢â¬ 9 (Linnebrink, 2002)Students and employees are motivated in many different ways but their motivation can vary based upon the situation or context in which they find themselves, (Linnebrink,2002) which means motivation is inherently changeable and sensitive to the context. Motivation will also vary based upon the subject matter being taught. Study results show that students who participate in religious services more frequently usually have a more positive self- image, feel good about school, have parental involvement, have fewer behavior problems and make higher scores. ((Toldson, 2010) Learning Styles Another major factor in the achievement of continuing academic success is the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness of their unique learning styles. Learning styles refer to the different strengths and preferred methods students and employees: use to receive and process information. Awareness of their learning styles is most beneficial to them in the achievement of continuing academic success. Learning style is about how the learner learns most effectively, knowing this allows the learners to use those educational methods strategies that is best facilitate their learning styles. Learning styles include, but are not limited to, visual (seeing), auditory (hearing), tactile or Kinesthetic (doing) and reading and writing preference learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s. No learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s is limited to one style of learning, but all have a preferred style. Being a kinesthetic learner, I prefer to do, participate in, discover. Kinesthetic learners need to move around while being involved in activities. Involvement doing increases their understanding. These learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s short and long term memories are strengthened by their use of movement. They use their bodies as a means of expressing thoughts, ideas and concepts. Importance of Ethics & Academic Integrity Ethics-is the study of the basic values of a community; moral principles thatÃ govern a personÃ¢â¬â¢s or groups behavior. Through the study of ethics we learn to understand what is expected of us behaviorally and why it is expected of us. We also learn rules of behavior based upon ideas about what is morally good and bad. Academic integrity means honesty and responsibility in scholarship. This includes values such as avoidance of cheating or plagiarism; maintenance of academic standards; honesty and rigor in research and academic publishing. Academic Integrity is based upon ethics, which is the study of the basic value of a community. Academic work should be a result of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own effort. It dishonest and show a lack of integrity to claim creativity for someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s work in any form. Growing up in a black church has lead me to be exposed to the influence of the black church on the moral and academic development of its students. Ã¢â¬Å"The study explored how religious influence affects academic achievement among black students. On a basic level this study found that all students participated in more religious activities and who had stronger religious convictions were more likely to report higher grades in school. The study does not determine that religion leads to higher grades.Ã¢â¬ The Ethical Lens Inventory make me aware of the fact that when I donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the information I need IÃ¢â¬â¢m tempted to excuse myself from following the rules, convincing myself that rules are for other people. In such situations, it is incumbent to remember that I, like everyone else must abide by the rules and regulations because they are set for the good of the community not just for me. Conclusion Continuing Academic Success requires the setting of distinct and clearly defined goals that can be measured. This allows one to choose where they want to go and what they want to achieve. Motivation is an important factor in this process. Awareness of individual learning styles is beneficial in achieving success. And adherence to ethics and academic integrity is a moral responsibility of all who are involved in academic endeavors. References 1. Gokalp, M. (2013, October). The Effect of StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Learning Styles to Their Academic Success. Creative Education, 4(10), pgs. 627-632. 2. Linnebrink, E. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (2002). Motivation as an enabler forÃ academic success. School of Psychology Review, 31(3), pg. 313-328 3. Toldson, Ivory A. & Anderson, Kenneth A. (2010) The Role of Spirituality, Religion and the African American Church on Educational Outcomes (Summer 2010)
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Marketing and sales function Purpose of the marketing function: the marketing function makes sure that they are getting the right product to the right people at the right price. Crucial to the success of Lex Transfleet or any business. One of the objectives of Lex Transfleet is to To carry out research to improve its products and services. Lex Transfleet should make sure of the following: Product Ã¢â¬â finding out and producing what the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s wants, for example what van or truck rental services the customers need. Lex Transfleet will carry out research to find out what the customers want and what demand there is for that service and they will try to fulfil that so that they have more customers who are interested in their services. Price Ã¢â¬â Fixing the price at which the customers will buy the product so that when the customers are interested in the products and different services they will want to know how much money they will be giving for this product or service and it will be easier for Lex Transfleet as they will know the price for this because they have already set it. Promotion Ã¢â¬â Deciding how they are going to promote their product using advertising, publicity and special offers and when Lex Transfleet does this they will attract more customers and their company will get more famous. Place Ã¢â¬â This is where the sales function comes in, the sales function will help Lex Transfleet decide on where and how they are going to sell the product; whether it is locally, nationally, over the phone or the internet. I think they work quiet affectively together because they share an improvement which means they get each others opinions on how to change things to make them better. Sales is the last part of the marketing strategy which means to sell the product after the prices, promoting, places and products are all donÃ¢â¬â¢t and updated so the customers will be satisfied knowing that Lex Transfleet is giving them a good secure and safe product it is important that these things are accurate because they are the main reason the business is up and running without them there is no business. Products and the Customers Lex Transfleet will need to get to know their customer and what the customer wants for example a customer will want to hire out a truck but for that Lex Transfleet will need to know what kind of a truck or van that is an check if they do them type of trucks. A customer Ã¢â¬â a customer is a person who buys a product for e.g. someone comes to Lex Transfleet and hires out a truck the person who hires it is the customer. A consumer Ã¢â¬â Is the person that uses the product for example if a truck is hired out for someone else to drive it he/she is then known as the consumer. Consumer types: The market is made up of different types of consumers as it has different segments trying to sell the product to everyone will not work for example selling expensive products to poor people. Consumers can be classified by: Age Gender Wealth and income Geographical area Lifestyle (fashion and taste) Lex Transfleet carries out a research into people, businesses and the governments to find out what type of vans, trucks and services they require. They link this with the finance function to get finance to carry out the research and advertising. They also link this with the Human resources to get the employees as they recruit and select people and researchers to carry out the research and get HR to train them for example induction training. The wages are paid by the finance function to pay for researchers and this means it is then auditable because it is recorded and so all the functional areas can work together to meet the aims and objectives effectively. Market research involves field (primary) and desk (secondary) research: Primary research Ã¢â¬â this involves communicating directly with the consumer to find out what they exactly it is that they need. Lex Transfleet carry out questionnaires and they invite customers to their business to interview them and this is what helps them with their research to meet there customers needs better. Lex Transfleet can also give loyalty cards which records every item bought by the customer. Secondary Research: Involves publish material for example reference books, statistics and marketing reports by specialist companies. This allows the marketing and sales department to find out information about consumers income and expenditure. Government publications also have information about spending, population changes, household information and family income. Pricing The price of the truck rental service needs to be fixed in Lex Transfleet and the reason for this is because Lex Transfleet wants to: Make profit Ã¢â¬â Lex Transfleet wants to cover the cost of it trucks so it does not make a loss in the business. Beating competition Ã¢â¬â Lex Transfleet will want other businesses to rent the trucks from them instead of competitors by keeping prices low and maximising sales which will attract more customers to come and buy trucks and other services from them. Providing a quality product or service Ã¢â¬â Lex Transfleet will need to make sure it is not undercharging for its services and products because customer will pay high prices for better products so this also means they will not have any loss in the profit. Lex Transfleet has also changed its name to RAC plc as it is branded and it will attract more customers. Promoting the product The Promotion Process involves the following which Lex Transfleet does: Advertising Ã¢â¬â informing the public or other businesses about Lex Transfleets products and services, e.g. they use the internet, newspapers. Branding Ã¢â¬â Lex Transfleet makes sure they create an image of the product or service in an attractive way Lex Transfleet has changed it name recently to Ã¢â¬ËRACÃ¢â¬â¢. Having a logo to and image to persuade customers to use them. Packaging Ã¢â¬â Lex Transfleet presents the product in an attractive way so the trucks have M.O.T and are safe and practical to use. Publicity Ã¢â¬â in the media which mean special promotions and sponsor which Lex Transfleet have on their website. Lex Transfleet have had good publicity in the news paper and press so get positive image. Give special offers to big companies who rent lots of trucks and for longer. They do have a website which they are on http://www.lvl.co.uk/vans/van_info/lex_transfleet.php giving promotion to subscribe to a van and light truck magazine. Place Involves selling the product for example selling the vans and truck rental services all over the U.K and they have a website which can attract customers. Lex Transfleet sell truck rental services directly to the customer which is safe. Lex Transfleet will give customers a quote through their internet using online bookings or emailing them and over the phone. Lex Transfleet uses telesales for selling to the customer over the phone so they will need call centre staff. Direct mail which Lex Transfleet uses to send their brochures out the businesses. E-commerce Lex Transfleet sell their services over the internet through their website you have to email them first to get a quote Lex Transfleet uses ICT in the marketing and sales function for: advertising and website, keeping customerÃ¢â¬â¢s profiles on the system, online marketing and also finding out research on their competitors by looking at the internet and other websites. Human Resources Function Purpose of the human resources function: Deals with hiring, firing and well being of the staff and all other functions for example sales and marketing, administration and finance ect. So it can run effectively. In Lex Transfleet they will need to deal with: Recruitment of staff which means that Lex Transfleet will need to be advertising vacancies liaise with finance for costs and payment, how many people to recruit. Disciplining and dismissing staff in other functions to run smoothly and to reduce costs. Training and development and promoting of staff which will liaise with finance for cost of training and other functional areas to check who needs training for example in Lex Transfleet induction and health and safety or other courses are taken place for this and if someone is in the sales and marketing function they will need training to do the job properly. Maintaining good working conditions of the staff and Health and safety in Lex Transfleet. Looking after employee and the business relationship and liaising with other functional areas like sales and marketing to find out how well the staff in Lex Transfleet are doing and rewarding staff by giving pay rises and liaise with finance about budget to give pay rises. Dealing with employee organisation for example the trade unions. The employees and the business have rights and responsibilities and Human Resources have to deal with this and make sure staff is aware of this in Lex Transfleet. Interest of employees protected by the trade union and by staff associations and also the rights of the employees protected by the employment laws liaise functional areas to make sure there is a safe working environment in Lex Transfleet. Everything is recorded so the employee will know if they have made any mistakes and need to improve or they have met their needs. Operations and management function Purpose of the management function: This function transforms the business resources into products and services for example operations which is the production of a goods or service. Land machinery Ã¢â¬â Lex Transfleet needs to find land, offices, call centres, machinery or equipment required and need to get information from other functions to get the right amount. Machinery equipment Ã¢â¬â Lex Transfleet has software, computers, photocopiers which the business needs. People who work there and for the business Ã¢â¬â call centre staff, mangers, supervisors, operatorÃ¢â¬â¢s consultants, accountants, specialists, solicitors. Materials and stock used by the business Ã¢â¬â trucks that are brought, truck parts, stationary, computers, software. Factors of production Land Ã¢â¬â the offices , buildings Labour- the people who work there Capital Ã¢â¬âthe money invested into the business Enterprise Ã¢â¬âthe input of the entrepreneur The resources used by Lex Transfleet will have to be paid for. This results on costs for the business for example wages, rent, rates, materials, stock, electricity, phone bills all of these have to be dealt with the finance department. When operations in Lex Transfleet are trying to produce a product or service it will have to look at its costs to manufacture that item or service and it will have to make sure that the sales department will cover the day to day costs and the greater the added value the greater the possible profit. So the more money they get from sales and they take away that from the running cost they get profit. Efficiency and productivity Efficiency means Ã¢â¬â making the most for the resources for example good productivity by the staff and also the number of sales made by staff in Lex Transfleet or the number of calls taken by the employee. Some employees paid a bonus for selling more services and also to motivate them to make more sales for Lex Transfleet. Quality assurance Ã¢â¬â quality assurance is very important as it means more returns to the businesses. Quality control of a service or product is very important for feedback to the marketing department. Operation check with sales as they monitor the calls and make sure the quality of service is very good. Sales liaise with Human Resources to give training to customers in Lex Transfleet. Operations liaise with Human resources to give training operation staff. Operations also monitor number of complaint and reasons for complaint to minimise this and improve services better by liaising with sales team to find out what their customer views are as they are in the front line and dealing with customers on a regular basis. Operations liaise with marketing to get information about customer demand, competitor information and lots more. Operations also check with sales function to check which items/services are selling more to make decision about producing more or less of these goods or services and then contacting the marketing function to either advertise more or less. Operations will liaise with finance to buy more or less to expand and liaise with Hr to get more staff. Finance Function Purpose of the finance function: To control inflow and outflow of money in the business and is also closely involved in the production of goods or services and links in with other functions of the business and senior management. Finance department Other functional areas Sales of products have to be recorded Sales Cost relating to the production have to be recorded Money has to be raised for producing the services and products (sales staff, trucks, offices) Operations/production Bills have to be paid Administration Wages have to paid Human resources Accounts have to be kept to calculate profit and loss All departments above Financial planning reports have to prepared Senior management In Lex Transfleet the finance department looks like this the table below shows this as the finance director. Finance director Financial accounting Costing and budgeting Managing finance Payroll Recording transactions Keeping accounts Preparing reports for the senior management Working out the cost of the product and services. Interpreting past costs and income Setting targets for cost and income Working out what resources are needed Raising capital and loan to finance the resources Rescoring hours worked by employees Calculating pay and deducting tax Financial accounting All transactions have to be recorded. Sales of the products and services from the sales department so they are auditable as they are recorded. Purchases made for stock or material from the operations department again so itÃ¢â¬â¢s recorded. Each type of expense for example electricity, bill rent, and wages are from the administration department. Wages is the information collected from the Human resources function so employees are paid on time and correct. Debtors are people who owe the business money for example the customers who have brought a product and still havenÃ¢â¬â¢t given the money for it. Creditors are people whom the business owes money for example if Lex Transfleet has brought something from somewhere e.g. a truck then they owe the money to the suppliers if they havenÃ¢â¬â¢t yet paid for it. Accounting ICT used to records all the transaction and special accounting software used to records wages. Financial statement is produced for management and this shows profit and loss and also, helps management monitor the main aims and objectives of the business the information on financial statements are on computer databases and so computers prepare the accounts automatically Finance produce 2 main accounts: Profit and loss shows sales figures form the sales functions, expenses from all functions and then can calculate the profit. The balance sheet shows how much the business owns and owes. Costing and budgeting this is how the function works together: Operations tell the finance of the cost of raw material purchased, for example trucks, tyres, equipment purchased by Lex Transfleet. The cost of paying the wages for the employees working for Lex Transfleet which the human resources function will let them know about. Other expenses such as: Bills which are the costs from administrations function. Electricity, water, rates, stationary are also in the administrations function. Advertising , promoting the business Ã¢â¬â sales and marketing function and they communicate with administration function so the suppliers are paid on time. The Finance function has to liaise with other functional areas to calculate the costs for making the product and service to ensure that there is a sufficient finance to cover the costs and also the business is making the most of efficient use of its resources. Budgeting Finance has to set budgets there are two kinds of budgets, a sales budget I used to forecast the income of the business from sales, and a production budget which is used to plan for the cost for producing the service for example cost for buying trucks and hiring people. Both Budgets will monitor the actual figures with forecasted and if the figures do not match for examples sales figures then they will liaise sales function to change their forecast or with marketing to advertise and promote the services better. Raising finance are the Long term finance needs which are used for investing in premises, trucks, machinery, computers and lots more, and theirs short term needs which is like buying stock for example trucks, paying bills, and paying wages. Finance has to raise money for the other functions such as marketing, sales, operation and administration to finance their expenditure so that the activities can takes place to meet Lex Transfleets aims and objectives. Payroll Works out pay and deduction of tax and national insurance of its employees and it gets it information from the Human Resources function and it is done by computers in Lex Transfleet as it is a large Plc and also uses computer payroll programmes as they are faster and very accurate., so the employees are happy as they will be being paid properly and accurately. Administration Function Purpose of the administration function: Administration is making sure that the right resources are in the right place at the right time. The administration function makes the business run smoothly and makes sure that: Paper in the photocopiers Paper in the loo Premises are safe Telephone messages are passed on Administration and communication: Information and messages such as enquiries, orders, complaints from external sources. Callers with or without appointment will call in and different functions will communicate with each their for the day to day running of the business these methods include paper, documents, telephone, fact, internal email and meeting. If finance needs to meet with operation function to make decisions the administration function will arrange it for example if a customer wants a meeting with the sales team the administration function will arrange it. The marketing function is done by: Sales so that they get records of customers, finance so they get to process accounts and payroll. Opening and distributing post when it arrives to all other functions and collecting and stamping the post going out at the end if the day from all other functions. Operating and telephone switchboard which means transferring these calls to the relevant people in other functions. Dealing with callers to premises and directing them to the relevant functions. Designing and printing forms for all the different functions and also filling and database maintenance and making sure the premises are clean and secure: Cleaning can be outsourced in Lex Transfleet which means using external companies which come and carry this out so the place is clean and safe for employees and visitors.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
History of women in the workforce - Essay Example This has precisely become a global phenomenon because they do not have access to equal opportunities. Following the lack of involvement of social entities, the feminine gender has found itself vulnerable to different detrimental factors such as diseases, physical abuse, emotional abuse and even sexual abuse. This paper, therefore, seeks to find and explore the role of women in the society and their vulnerability in an environment that is almost dominated by their opposite gender. Historically women have all through been highly faced with some obstacles that have been brought about by religious, cultural practices, ethnic background and sometimes abuse from their own spouses. Some conflicts have developed in the family relations with regard to gender. Arguably it is believed that behavioural norms have made gender roles vary from one culture to another In China, for example, women are treated as subordinates as opposed to their male counterparts. Therefore, they do not have any right that is supposedly supreme to that of their husbands or fathers. Different roles are set for them. For instance, collecting firewood and fetching water. Significantly the way gender roles are shared is partly attributed to the role that is being played by religion whereby, for example, in the Asian culture the women are highly forbidden in the holy places of worship especially when they are considered unclean due to some reason such as menstruation, ovulation and miscarriages (Hughes and Hughes 212). ... are considered unclean, and can, therefore, not stand in the pulpits or holy temples before they are secluded or sent to undergo thorough cleansing that is presided over by high priests. Significantly, this automatically depicts the men as clean. It also associates them with high divinity and high morals than their female counterparts hence bringing out the relations and differences between the two genders. Widespread discrimination is also another stumbling block before them. The way roles are distributed to women is partially attributed to religion and other social and cultural factors. Religion has been used to curtail the empowerment of women in society who are perceived as a weaker sex. Social-cultural factors such as societal taboos and traditions have also played a role in making womenÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle for freedom a pipedream. Over the years, however, women have come out to claim their position in society. In the modern society, women have been able to crush the traditional n utshell and have been able to unleash their potential to the society. Women have managed to work in different disciplines like medicine, sports activities, art and even education. This is not only a comfort, but also a stepping stone to them since men continue to dominate the lucrative upper and better paying jobs in the government and other areas whereas, on the other hand, the women are not given full equal opportunities and rights like their opposite gender. They have little or no say at all in even the ownership of property because they are considered to be their husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s property. Gender and sexuality are also taking a rather intriguing direction. Almost all religions have come up with a development that covers issues on sexuality and ethics. The society tends to look down upon the
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Two topic ( social+International ) - Essay Example The country provides very warm temperatures for most part of the year. Trying to introduce this product is therefore relevant for most of the year. A south African columnist suggests that since most of Swazi population lives below the poverty line, things have to be made affordable to everyone. Education and health rates hamper development. The company intending to branch into the country should ensure to have reduced prices for their products. This makes it affordable for the consumer. Swaziland has a current a population of about 1.2 million people. The incentive when introducing swim suits in the country should focus on their cultural background. However, over the years Swaziland has continually been part of the conflict many westernizing countries around Africa face. In order for the company to avoid this, it should only produce suits for people in major towns to gain market entry where the product would be welcome. This will ensure that the company and the Swazi do not conflict. To have a good market stand, it is essential for the company to make promotional incentives as well as ample advertising. However, this would not be a big problem since the population is not that large and the would therefore gain recognition easily. Polgreen, Lydia. Ã¢â¬Å"Piggs Peak Journal: Grandmas Grow Gold in SwazilandÃ¢â¬ created 5th, August 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/15/world/africa/grandmothers-grow-marijuana-in-swaziland-to-support-families.html?_r=0 Retrieved 4th April,
Statement - Essay Example I will attempt to prove all this today and over the following nine days, but first I would like to tell you some more about who the victim in this case really is. Ms. Chen joined the staff at Monash University as a teacher and research academic in May of 2008. Before that time Ms. Chen had worked at the Imperial College in London and also at the University of Cambridge. She had gained two PhDs; one from Imperial College in 2007 for Biomaterials and the other from the University of Science and Technology of Beijing in 1992 for Metallurgical Physics. Professor Sian Harding from the Imperial College of London made the comment that "Qizhi (Ms. Chens nickname) is an exceptionally bright and creative scientist." In terms of her teaching capabilities, Professor Alexander Bismarck, also from Imperial College, remarked that Qizhi is "a gifted teacher." To put it simply, Ms. Chen is an independent thinker, hard-working academic and strong-minded woman who has carved out a fine academic career for herself. In contrast to many female academics who choose to put their career above a family, Ms. Chen is a very typical conservative Chinese woman with a strong family life. She also has a 12-year-old son, who is the apple of her eye. In conjunction with pursuing her academic goals and objectives, Ms. Chen is of the belief that being a mother with a caring family around her is considered to be the greatest achievement a woman can make. In line with her cultural values, Ms. Chen possesses the traits of loyalty, decency, and honesty. Also, Ms. Chen balances her work life and personal life in a way that allows her to have healthy relationships with everyone who she comes across. She is a woman who is quick to forgive and only make judgements based on facts rather than conjecture. In the workplace, Ms. Chen prefers an inclusive approach whereby knowledge can be shared for the benefit of
Monday, August 26, 2019
Labour Governments measures to mitigate truancy in the U.K - Essay Example From this research it is clear that truancy has been described as the absence of students from school without a valid reason. The duration of non Ã¢â¬â attendance varies from a single class to many weeks. Several reasons exist for such truant behaviour and bravado, depression, retention by the parents in order to supervise younger children at home, etc, are some of the usual reasons. Parentally approved absence from school poses a major quandary and endures despite the instructions of the 1996 Education Act that such absence could be sanctioned only by the school authorities. Moreover, several of the some of the seemingly credible reasons given by parents to account for the absence of their children from school are dubious. It has been observed that forty thousand students abstain from school each day without proper authorization. During the overhaul of the educational system in order to make available education and training to youth between fourteen to nineteen years of age, the Government of the United Kingdom proposed that there should be an incorporation of flexibility in the syllabus and that there should be an enhancement of the status of vocational training. Investment on its own is incapable of ensuring an education of a high standard. The requirement is to combine reform with investment. Some of the reforms that have been implemented, in order to achieve this objective, are specialist schools, literacy and numeracy strategies, superior vocational education and the right to adult skills training.
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Greek history, using Plutarch's biography - Essay Example Solon was able to strike a following among the rich as well as the poor, which would have been difficult for anyone else for his hardline position against unfair distribution of wealth1. This was only possible because justice to the conflicting groups meant that they were all winners in the reforms introduced by his proposed laws. A preview of his laws shows that Solon had preference for freedom and justice for all men in an equitable society, unlike supporters of tyranny. Lycurgus of Sparta is perhaps one of the greatest lawmaking figures in the Ancient Greece history for his firm stand on observing the law. Unlike many other lawmakers of his time, he had a deep conviction of the supremacy of the law and almost always made complete devotion to deliver. His contributions in law captured the needs of the society at the day in form of distribution of land, justice in leadership, military and social development. The tradition of Sparta as a military powerhouse had its foundations established during the times of Lycurgus. He was a strict enforcer of the guidance given by the Delphic Oracle of Apollo, who gave him assurances and encouragement of flawless implementation of social reform. While militarism and power were deeply rooted in the cultural traditions of the Spartans, LycurgusÃ¢â¬â¢ contribution towards communal governance with militarism elements cannot be assumed2. Equitable allocation of resources among the poor and the rich was equally followe d in Sparta during the time of Lycurgus. SolonÃ¢â¬â¢s contributions to the society were popular across the social divide mainly due to his strength as a popular figure among the conflicting sides of the divided Athens society. While the poor had a strong case against the rich, it was difficult for a rich person to freely be accepted pose as a mediator. Likewise, it would have been difficult for the rich to accept a poor person to represent them in social reforms. Solon however was able to defy these
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Inclusion in schools with students with autism - Dissertation Example According to the Autism Society nearly 1% of the US population that consists of children between the age group of 3 and 17 years has an autism spectrum disorder. Occurrence of autism is estimated to be 1 in 110 births in the US. Approximately the ratio of autism in the US is 1:1.5 million of American suffering from this disorder. The growth rate of this disability is around 1148% and known as the fastest-growing developmental disability. This develops at an annual rate of 10 to 17%. The government of the United States of America spends nearly US$ 60 billion per year for autism. In an average of ten years span of time the expenditure is estimated to be around US$ 200 to US$ 400 billion with the aid of new technology. It has been estimated that 1% of the UK adult population has an autism spectrum disorder. The Autism Society has estimated that the cost of autism is US$ 3.2 million Dollar per person over the life span of an individual (Autism Society, 2011). The effect of autism on lear ning and functioning in the society has the capability to range from mild to severe. It also has the ability to cause anxiety, frustration and confusion that are expressed in a multiple behavioral way. This kind of reaction can result to recurring behaviors, social withdraw and in certain intense situations be more aggressive and can injure himself/herself (Janzen, 1996). Kanner had provided views about the autism as a childhood disorder and found out certain things that are consequence of autism and are listed below: Ã¢â¬Å"Extreme detachment from human relationships Failure to use language for the purpose of communication Anxiously obsessive desire for the maintenance of sameness, resulting in a marked limitation in the variety of spontaneous activity Fascination for objects, handled with skill in fine motor movements Good cognitive potentialities" (Marwick & Et. Al., 2005). Autism is prevalent in boys four times more than girls and knows no social or ethnic and race barrier. The effect of Autism can be seen in the areas of communication skills and social interaction as the development of the students suffering from autism is low in these respect. The children and adults, who suffer from an autism spectrum disorder, face difficulties in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication. This type of disorder creates difficulties for them to interact with the outside world (University of Hawaii, 2008). The Autism Society of America (ASA) was established in the year 1965 by a small number of groups of parents of the autism suffering children. Till date the ASA has been leading in providing information about the autism and is known as the largest collective voice that represents autism community for more than 33 years. Through the voluntary network in recent times there are over 24000 members associated with the ASA in more than 50 states. The rationale of the Autism Society of America is to encourage lifelong entrance and prospects for persons within the range of autism and their family members. This society offers advice, generates public awareness, educates the society and provides researches that are related to autism. The ASA is devoted towards generating the awareness and the problems that are faced in day-today activities by an individual with autism (University of Hawaii, 2008). For diagnosing autism there are no medical tests. There are many different ways in interoperating the autism suffering individuals. Many of the behaviors that are associated with t
Friday, August 23, 2019
Japan - Essay Example Japan is among the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most populated countries in the 21st century. The population of Japan is estimated to be approximately 125,000,000 according the recent population data available. Japan is a country that is made of several islands, which, are spread out in the Pacific Ocean. The main islands that make up Japan are, Kyushu, Hokkaido, Honshu and Shikoku. Japan is located in the Asian continent neighboring Korea, China and Russia. Japan has its southern most islands lying relatively at the same as Bahamas whereas its northern most islands geographically lies in similar latitude as Portland. Japan is preeminently an industrious country with a booming economy that has underwent numerous challenges over the decades. The major industries in Japan are reputably, electronics and automobile industries whose success has put Japan on the green light at the international economic stance. The Japanese products made their way to the international market after the Second World War with a high quality reputation and relatively low prices. The most significant industries that feature on the export of Japan are metal industry, aerospace industry, shipbuilding and biotechnology. The major problem facing the industries is the huge dependence on of raw materials from foreign countries. Japan is relatively inadequate supply of natural resources. The economy of Japan is inevitably influenced by its exports and imports. However, Japan has a good performance in economic freedoms among them business freedom, property rights as well as, freedom from corruption. Japan has a well-established modern financial sector. The economics of Japan has one shortcoming, huge public debt, which is considered to pose a challenge in reviving its stagnant economy. In addition, the disparities between various segments of the Japanese economy have widened continuously (countrystudies.us). Japan relies on its main export products are electronics, cars and computer devices for foreign exchange. Mostly, Japan exports its products to Taiwan, Hongkong, Singapore, Germany and Thailand. Japan obtains most of its raw materials imports from Australia, USA, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, the United Arab Emirates and Indonesia. The average annual income of Japan is approximately $ 60, 600 USD according to the survey by Japan labor ministry. The annual average inc ome of Japan decreases every year. This has been attributed to the fact that lifetime jobs are becoming less popular in the economy of Japan. The young people in Japan have a hard time securing a full time employment. The political instability of Japan and natural calamities such as the nuclear disaster are among factors that affect the Japanese economy tremendously. The economic meltdown caused by the nuclear disaster and the earthquake tragedy has rendered most Japanese companies financially unstable (kwintessential.co.uk). Japan is among the countries that boast of a diverse cultural setting with various religions and beliefs. The major religions in Japan are Buddhism and Shintoism. The Japanese population has customs and beliefs, which they hold on closely to day in day out. The most popular Japanese rituals originated from the rituals of Shintoism symbolizing hope and spiritual health for the members of the community. The origin of the Shintoism religion is not clearly traceabl e although there is archaeological evidence that suggests the Yayoi people first practiced it in the period (400B.C-250 A.D). The Yayoi people were made up of various clans with a god being associated to each. The gods represented nature objects such as rivers, mountains, rocks and storms. The Buddhism religion became established in Japan unimpeded in 587 A.D after the defeat of the Ã¢â¬Å" monohobeÃ¢â¬ clan that was opposing of Buddhism (afe.easia.columbia.edu). Japanese people have a major cultural belief, which involves an annual visitation of the dead by the members of their family. The festival is known as Bon Festival in which Buddhists visit temples
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Mental Health Parity Act of 1996 Essay The law allowed an increased cost exemption, which stated that employers that can demonstrate a one percent or more rise in costs due to parity implementation will be allowed to exempt themselves from the law. The Mental Health Parity Act did not include rules for service charges, designations for the number of inpatient hospital days or outpatient visits that must be covered, coverage in connection with Medicare or Medicaid, restrictions on a health insurance planÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to manage care, and coverage for treatment of substance abuse or chemical dependency. I do not think that the Mental Health Parity Act was successful, because there are many people still in this world who donÃ¢â¬â¢t have insurance have to pay more than what people with insurance do. Even some people with insurance have to pay a lot out of pocket for services. Even when it was still in act, it only took effect to people with major disabilities. This left most of the population having to pay for many of the services themselves.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Cypop 5 Essay It helps children to deal with difficult circumstances such as emotional stress or medical treatments. Play gives children chance to let off steam and have fun. Children learn when they are in a safe and caring environment. They are stimulated through play. Babies and young children develop best when they are in a caring relationship with an adult. A baby will learn to walk faster when they have a safe pair of arms to walk towards and learn to talk when they have an adult who listens to them and responds accordingly. I aim to provide children with an environment that is caring, fun and stimulating. I aim to expand each childs individual, intellectual, physical and emotional capacities within a secure environment where each child, will be confident and settled. I will implement ideas from the EYFS and I will provide activities/opportunities that support the six main learning areas which are : * Knowledge Understanding Of the World * Personal social and emotional development * Communication language and literacy * Creative Development * Physical Development * Problem solving, Reasoning and Numeracy. Each child will be able to choose their own activities and access continuous provision throughout these six areas. Activities will be both planned and spontaneous according to your childÃ¢â¬â¢s preference. My weekly plan will be dependent on the children in my care and their ages and stages of development although I will be attending various groups and clubs within the local area that I live. Sample weekly plan: Morning afternoon Monday outdoor playchildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s centre childminders group Tuesday -soft indoor play (wacky)creative play/ arts and crafts Wednesday-country park/ play areachildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s centre playgroup Thursday baking/cookingoutdoor play Friday childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s centre groupindoor play at home Play can be constructed to fulfil areas of the EYFS, especially any areas where a child may be struggling, such as Playing with sand Texture, Weight, Pouring through containers, colours, measuring, shapes, make sand castles etc this can link to the following areas of the EYFSÃ¢â¬â personal development Ã¢â¬â personal, social and emotional development creative development Ã¢â¬â communication language and literacy All of the above would be flexible dependant on the children and any new sessions that can be accessed. Before any weekly plan can be made you would need to observe the children in your care to produce a plan that is appropriate to their development this will also help identify when to add/remove new toys/resources. I will use Natural resources and household items to provide stimulating play for the children to look after such as Sawdust and Bark for dinosaur play, jugs, funnels, guttering for water play, blankets pillows and throws and pegs for den building and communication friendly spaces etc. All children are individuals first, each with a unique profile of abilities. All planning starts with observing children in order to understand and consider their interests, development and learning. I will make systematic observations and assessments of each childÃ¢â¬â¢s achievements ,interests and learning styles. I will use these observations and assessments to identify learning priorities and plan relevant and motivating learning experiences for each child that I care for. I will match their observations to the expectations of the development matters principles. I will need to make regular observations on each child, using different techniques. These may include photographs, tick lists written observations and photographs. Where a child is not achieving their development goals I may then decide to speak to the parents regarding accessing other services for the child. All children need to feel valued and given the same options. I will ensure that children, parents/carers and visitors have equal rights and choices. Everyone will be given the respect that we all deserve as individuals. No person will be discriminated against and any remarks or comments of this kind will be challenged and discussed to ensure that it does not happen again. I welcome and include all children, their families and members of the community into my setting and I will ensure my setting is accessible to everyone. If a child in my care had specific requirements, certain changes would be made to the interior and exterior of my premises, dependent on the individuals circumstances. Certain activities are also adapted. All the children who come to my setting will have the same opportunities available to them. I am aware of the following legislation, The ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Act, The disability Act, UN convention on the Right of the Child, The childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Bill 2004 and the Special Educational Needs Discrimination Act 2001. I will talk to different specialist groups, health visitors and read appropriate books to learn more about the condition and needs of the child, thus enabling me to provide the best possible care. If a child required assistance from a speech therapist or occupational therapist, then this could be arranged at my setting if it was more convenient for parents. I will do displays and have equipment in my setting that promotes a positive multi cultural attitude. I welcome parents/carers and visitors to talk about cultures, religions, food, clothes etc. I will never refuse or exclude a child. I will build on each childÃ¢â¬â¢s previous experience when accessing play opportunities. I will enable children to gain confidence and independence in play and identify individual requirements and provide appropriate support as/when required. I will also borrow and gain resources to enhance the inclusion of children with mobility or sensory difficulties. During snack time I will encourage children to help where appropriate eg. Older children could help butter crackers, or younger children could help divide fruit onto plates, I will encourage the children to help prepare our shopping list for the week for snacks and mealtimes and also encourage them to help with the meal plan for the week. During our week I will plan our activites a sample week could include : Monday : AM Ã¢â¬â Childrens centre drop in PM Ã¢â¬â Park weather dependant Tuesday AM Ã¢â¬â Wacky Warehouse PM Ã¢â¬â play at home LEGO, PUZZLES and nap time Wednesday AM Ã¢â¬â
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Effects of Social Class Identification on Government Walsh, K. C., Jennings, M., Stoker, L. (2004). The Effects of Social Class Identification on Participatory Orientations Towards Government.Ã British Journal of Political Science,Vol.34, No.03, pp.469-495. Brief Summary There is common claim that class identity does not matter for American political behaviour. The researchers tried to find out the influence of social class identification on participatory orientations towards government. The researchers focus on class identity perspective which people use to interpret and interact with the political world. The researchers used panel-study data spanning thirty-two years and two generations. Research Description This studyÃ¢â¬â¢s independent variable is social class identification. There are two approaches, the first respondents subjectively identified themselves, and the second one is objective assessment. The researchers distinguish two classes (working-class and middle-class) by levels of income, education, union membership, and occupation. This studyÃ¢â¬â¢s dependent variable is participatory orientations towards government. The researchers employed four measures. All of these measures concern political involvement and engagement (political interest, political efficacy, conception of good citizen, and political participation). Because there were many variables in this research, the researchers used multivariate analysis. Two variables are control variables, they are gender and race. Ã¢â¬Å"In a multivariate analysis, a variable is said to controlled when its influence is removed. We control variable by holding its value constantÃ¢â¬ (Agresti, 1999, p.305). The methodology in that research was a quantitative approach. Creswell (2003, p.18) explained quantitative as Ã¢â¬Å"an approach which the investigator primarily uses post positivist claims for developing knowledge, employs strategies of inquiry such as experiments and survey, and collects data on predetermined instruments that yield statistical dataÃ¢â¬ . Because the purpose of this research is to make predictions about relation or effects of social class on political world, researchers used inferential statistics. Ã¢â¬Å"Inferential statistical analysis can predict characteristics of entire populations quite well by selecting samples that are small relative to the population size. In the past quarter-century, social scientists have increasingly recognized the power of inferential statistical methodsÃ¢â¬ , (Agresti, 1999, p.5). This research used longitudinal research, from 1965-1997 with panel-study type. The sampling technique is proportionate stratified random sampling. The sample is 1,669 seniors from 97 secondary high schools in America in 1965 and also their parents. Furthermore, the instrument which researchers used is a questionnaire. Research Critique Clarity This research methods use inferential statistics to predict population characteristics by using sample, so the concept of population and sample must be clear. According to Babbie (1990, p.72), researchers must begin with a careful specification of population and should not mislead or deceive the readers. He gave example Ã¢â¬Å"Adult New YorkersÃ¢â¬ is clearer than Ã¢â¬Å"AmericanÃ¢â¬ because there is specification of the age and boundaries. In this study, the population all senior high school students in USA, and the unit analysis is an individual senior high school student in 1965. The sample is 1,669 students in 1965 and their parents. The researchers describe the different attitude between two generations. Besides that, the researchers also show the trend or the changing of respondents attitude using four wave panels for student generation in 1965 (G2) and three waves panel for their parents (G1). This article published in July 2004 and at the beginning of the article (p.469) clearly stated that it is about American political behavior. In addition, the brief result or answer for research question is Ã¢â¬Å"class may be particularly important in the present political contextÃ¢â¬ . However the researchers used data survey in 1965, 1973, 1982, and 1997. The focus of research is one of issues here. Longitudinal research usually compares the changing of the subject time after time. One of types of longitudinal research is panel-study. Ã¢â¬Å"Panel studies involve the collection of data over time from the same sample respondents. The sample for such a study is called the panelÃ¢â¬ (Babbie, 1990, p.58). Researchers make claim the result particularly important for present political context instead of stated trend of last five decades or comparison of two generations. 2.2 Theory and Hypotheses Ã¢â¬Å"Theory has an important role in research and is an essential ally for the researcher. Researchers interweave a story about the operation of the social world (the theory) with what they observe when examine it systematicallyÃ¢â¬ (Neuman, 2007, p.24). Dennis Gilbert (2010, p.11) define social classes as Ã¢â¬Å"groups of families, more or less equal in rank and differentiated from other families above or below them with regard to characteristics such as occupation, income, wealth, and prestigeÃ¢â¬ . Furthermore he figure out American social class structure become six parts: underclass (12%), working poor (13%), working class (30%), middle class (30%), upper-middle class (14%), and capitalist class (1%). Each of class has characteristics in terms of typical occupation and education. In this research, researchers just use two social classes. Justification to do that because based on previous research by Jackman and Jackman in 1975, the vast majority respondents identified as working-class (37 %) or middle-class (44 %). In subjective social class identification, respondents have to choose two options. As a result there are several respondents did not give answer. Instead of beginning with theories and concepts related to engagement in governmental affairs such as political participation and civic engagement, the researchers directly gave their measurement. They used four measurements to measure participatory orientations toward government (political interest, active citizen, political efficacy, and political participation). Based on the purpose of research to get to know relationship social class identification toward participatory orientations toward government, the simply hypothesis would be: H0 = There is no significant correlation/effects between social class identification and participatory orientations towards government. Ha= There is significant correlation/effects between social class identification and participatory orientations towards government. In analytical surveys usually are driven by theoretical questions. The purpose is to collect evidence which supports or contradict some hypothesis about the cause of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. Buckingham and Saunders (2004, p.14) define hypotheses as Ã¢â¬Å"statements about what our theoretical propositions lead us to expect to find. They enable theories to be tested by predicting patterns of observations that should occur. Hypotheses therefore predict patterns of association in observed data as a means for testing causal theoriesÃ¢â¬ . 2.3 Research Design and Methodology Ã¢â¬Å"Research design is a strategy for collecting and analyzing data. It must be appropriate for answering the questions which the project is seeking to address, and it must take into account the practical constraints which the project is likely to encounterÃ¢â¬ (Buckingham and Saunders, 2004, p.294). The strategy which researchers used to collect data here is a survey. Sampling In order to get the view and attitude of population, the researchers used random sampling. This is the selection of a sample that should be representative of the population. The researchers choose from sampling frame available, and each individual has same opportunity. In this study, type of probability sampling which researchers used is proportionate stratified random sampling. The researchers said (p.473) Ã¢â¬Å"the students were distributed across a stratified sample of ninety-seven secondary schools, with the probability of schools selection being proportionate to sizeÃ¢â¬ . As described above, the sample took in 1965 from 97 schools with target subjects 1,669 students and one of their parents as well. We can ask questions, why the researchers used stratified random sampling? Why make a senior high school student as a unit analysis? Why there are four wave panels? Actually it is a series of data survey about political attitudes and behaviors by obtaining data on the same individuals as they aged from approximately 18 years of age in 1965 to 50 years of age in 1997. Based on that series of data survey, in 2004 the researchers make study about the effects of social identification on participatory towards government affairs. According to this information, we can assume the stratum here is the generation (G1 and G2). These four wave panels yielded 935 respondents for G2 (students) and 898 respondents for three wave panels G1 (parents). However, the surveys in 1973 and 1982 did not include social class questions. Because of geographical problem to make personal interview, the base panel survey in 1973 and 1982 are 728 for G1 and 659 for G2. One problem here, can we compare every wave panel, if the sample compositions are different? Instrumentation Ã¢â¬Å"A research instrument is a survey questionnaire or interview schedule that researcher uses to measure variablesÃ¢â¬ (Neuman, 2007, p.168). The researchers used a questionnaire which conducted by several ways (face-to-face interview, computer-assisted personal interview, computer-assisted telephone interview, and self-enumerated questionnaire). This research used Logistic regression model for binary response variables which only has two possible outcomes. Education level: This index was scaled from 0 (less than high school) to 1 (PhD). Union Member: 0 = no; 1 = yes. Income: all of responses about household income were coded to the midpoint of the category and then rescaled within each wave and each generation from 0 (least) to 1 (highest). Occupation Skill Level Self-Employment and Homemaker For the better education level, income, and participate in union member would take into account in middle class status. However, for occupation indicators, the researchers just gave information about the consideration without description where those characteristics were placed. There are several questions in the questionnaire which measure political attitudes of American people. Researchers employed four measures, and it is categorized as a dichotomous dependent dummy variable. The value is most often a representation for a measured variable (Hagle, 2004). Political interest, 0 = hardly at all, 1 = most of the time Being an active citizen, 0 = if they did not volunteer such a response, 1 = respondents volunteered a response of this nature in any one of the responses. Political Efficacy, 0 = least efficacy, 1 = most efficacy Political participation, 0 = least active, 1 = most active The measurement scale which researchers used is an ordinal scale. Neuman (2007, p.375) defines ordinal level measurement as Ã¢â¬Å"a level of measurement that identifies a difference among categories of a variable and allows the categories to be rank orderÃ¢â¬ . Even though just there are two categories (0 and 1), we can order it, which is 1 is more active than 0 in terms of political participation variable for example. Ordinal scale can have more than two options, for example (very interested, interested, uninterested, very uninterested). 2.4. Analysis of Data and Findings The researchers provide regression tables to describe their research result. In this study, researchers stated (p.479) that they used bivariate (type I) and multivariate regression models (type II). Bivariate analysis is an analysis of association between two variables. On the other hand, Ã¢â¬Å"multivariate analysis is statistical procedures which attempt to distinguish and measure the relative strength or significance of association between several independent variables and a dependent variablesÃ¢â¬ (Buckingham and Sunders, p.292). The regression model formula: y= a + b1x1 + b2x2 + Ã¢â¬ ¦ + e. Relationship between Class Identity and Political Interest The positive and significant coefficients on class identity in the bivariate models (I) indicate that middle-class identifiers display higher levels of interest. Generally, the stable middle-class identifiers are consistently and statistically significantly more interested in politics than are the stable working-class identifiers with p-value Relationship between Class Identity and Conception of Good Citizen as an Active Political Participant Middle-class identifiers are significantly more likely to emphasize the importance of being an active player in politics. In generation 2, the working-class mean drops from 0.53 to 0.41, whereas middle-class mean stays at 0.62. In model II, stable middle-class always more likely to mention active engagement than were stable working-class, 0.10 more in 1965 and 0.20 more in 1997. Relationship between Class Identity and Political Efficacy The bivariate models show the gaps between middle-class and working-class identifiers range from 0.14 to 0.21 for G1, and from 0.16 to 0.23 for G2 on the 0-1 efficacy scale. The dramatic decline of political efficacy happened from 1973 to 1992 (0.61 to 0.49) for G1 middle-class. On the other hand, for G2 slightly increase from 0.65 in 1982 become 0.67 in 1997. Relationship between Class Identity and Political Participation The constants and coefficients in the type I models demonstrate the expected life cycle: decreasing participation among parents as they become older and increasing participation among the offspring generation as they middle age. The type II models show that subjective identification becomes a less impressive predictor for G1 members as the coefficients on stable middle-class identity changed from 0.15 in 1965 to 0.09 in 1982. At confidence interval 95% and p-value (*p Limitation and Recommendation 3.1 Reliability and Outdated Neuman (2007, p.115) explain reliability as Ã¢â¬Å"dependability or consistency. It suggests that the same thing is repeated or recurs under the identical or very similar conditionsÃ¢â¬ . This research seems like not reliable enough due to limited information given by the researchers. It may be difficult for the other researchers to conduct similar type of research in the future. The data which the researchers used derived from 1965-1997. Meanwhile, the research launched in 2004, and now 2014. Thus, this research could be less important to be used because the condition and preferences of people to participate on governmental affairs might be has been changed. 3.2 Sampling The representativeness is one of issues here. The researchers use data from their previous research. We can question, whether 1,669 students (with his parent) at 97 schools are representative? How about the distribution? Response rate from this study is just slightly more than a half of the total respondents, 935 of 1,669 or 56%. Then from 935 the researchers could only processed 728 data. Some of the reasons data not completed is because some respondents refuse to state their social class identity and geographical factor. It is easier for the researchers to focus on particular area or state. Besides that, the researchers can make shorter the range of research duration, only one decade for example. It is because not easy to keep the same and large respondents in long time period. 3.3 Data Analyzing The researchers not much explain about dependent variables in type II model, but from four those regression tables we know that, education and income are outstanding variables who make significant differences between working-class and middle-class. Research Good Practice and Contribution This study not only including subjective claim but also use objective indicator to determine of the social class of the respondents. Researchers effort to use panel study spanning two generations G1 and G2 for thirty-two years, allows the reader to check the trend of participation. The researcher concluded there is relevance of social class identification and participatory toward government affairs. It showed middle class with better income, education level, and occupation more contributive and active in political activity and civic engagement than working class. This research could be consideration for government to make strategies how to increase political participation like to vote in general election. Besides that, media, academician, and politicians could make effort to raise public awareness about how relevance and important of politics in their life. Conclusion To conclude this study, I would like to highlight back some points. Overall, it is a good research and useful in social political discipline. The researchers offered something new from previous research about social class and political participation. They used longitudinal research, compare two generations, and used objective measurement to determine social class. However, there are still few things need to be improved towards achieve a better result. Bibliography Agresti, A., Finlay, B. (1999) Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Babbie, E. (1990). Survey research methods . Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Buckingham, A., Saunders, P. (2004)The survey methods workbook: From design to analysis. Cambridge: Polity Press Creswell, J.W. (2009) Research Design Ã¢â¬â Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches 3rd edition, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications Hagle, T. M. (2004) Dichotomous Variablesin The Sage Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. Ed. Michael Lewis-Beck, Alan Bryman and Tim Futing Liao. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications Jackman, M. R., and Jackman R. W. (1983) Class Awareness in the United States. Barkeley: University of California Press. Neuman, W. L. (2007) Basic of Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. 2nd ed. Boston: Pearson Education. Walsh, K. C., Jennings, M., Stoker, L. (2004). The Effects of Social Class Identification on Participatory Orientations Towards Government.British Journal of Political Science,Vol.34, No.03, pp.469-495.
Health care reform has been a big topic since the Clinton administration when First Lady, Hillary Rodham Clinton, took it under her belt to devise a new system. Health care is the provision taken to preserve mental and physical health using prevention and treatment. Compared to other health care systems in the world, the United States is ranked 37th in terms of care, claims Michael Moore (2007). Ironically, our health care system spends more than any other nation on its patients, averaging nearly $8,000 per person (DiNitto, 2012). With soaring costs, it is no surprise that one in every seven Americans are uninsured (Kaiser, 2011). Even with these sorry figures, statistics show that 85% of Americans are satisfied with their health care (Saad, 2009). Another study shows that even 70% of uninsured Americans are pleased when they receive health care (Loft, 2009). Health care needs to be reformed, but in reformation, we must remember the amount of preexisting satisfaction. Living in a largely Judeo-Christian culture, we have high respect for the dignity of life. Our values are reflected through various federal and state documents including the declaration of independence which states that Ã¢â¬Å"[a]ll menÃ¢â¬ ¦are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of happinessÃ¢â¬ (1776, par. 2). Each individual deserves justice. Our culture is also reflected through the way we inadvertantly uphold the Ten Commandments. The United States was founded on biblical principles which emit the dignity of all people. We must be careful to clearly see the line between all people and the majority of people. When utilitarian attitudes compel change, societiesÃ¢â¬â¢ weakest members are put at ... ...und the world. Pbs. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/sickaroundtheworld/view/ PBSNewshour. (2012, March 28). Supreme court wraps up health reform law hearings: WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s next? Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/health/jan-june12/scotusday3_03-28.html PBSNewshour. (2012, March 30). Health reformÃ¢â¬â¢s fate: How the Supreme Court will decide? Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/health/jan-june12/scotus_03-30.html PBSNewshour, (2012, March 30). Shields, Brooks, on Supreme Court Ã¢â¬Ëhigh tension,Ã¢â¬â¢ health reformÃ¢â¬â¢s future. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/politics/jan-june12/shieldsbrooks_03-30.html Saad, L. (2009). Cost is foremost health care issues for America. Retrieved from http://ww w.gallup.com/poll/123149/cost-is-foremost-healthcare-issue-for-americans.aspx U.S. Declaration of Independence, Paragraph 2 (1776).
Monday, August 19, 2019
Internet Porn, the ACLU, and Congress Ã Ã Ã Ã Ashcroft vs. ACLU, 00-1293, deals with a challenge to the Child Online Protection Act (COPA), which Congress passed in 1998. The law, which is the subject of this essay, attempts to protect minors from exposure to Internet pornography by requiring that commercial adult websites containing "indecent" material that is "harmful to minors" use age-verification mechanisms such as credit cards or adult identification numbers.(Child) An earlier version of the law -- the 1996 Communications Decency Act -- was struck down as an unconstitutional restriction of free speech when challenged by the ACLU; the 1998 version attempted to address the constitutional concerns by limiting its scope to commercial websites, and carving out an exception for material that has "serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value for minors." (Communications) COPA makes adult website operators liable for criminal sanctions -- up to $50,000 in fines and six months in jail -- if children are able to access material deemed "indecent," by "contemporary community standards," for those under 16. This raises the sticky issue of what "community" should set the standard for the global world of the Internet. No one has been prosecuted under COPA; the ACLU brought suit as soon as the law was passed, and a federal judge in Pennsylvania agreed to block enforcement. The Third Circuit upheld the injunction, ruling that COPA's reliance on community standards improperly allows the most conservative communities to dictate what should be considered indecent. The ACLU represents a number of plaintiffs who publish materials online, including an art gallery, Salon.com magazine, a bookstore, and the producer of a... ...rmful to minors on the Web, Beeson responded: "There isn't any way to make it a crime to display material harmful to minors on the Web." A decision from the Supreme Court is expected sometime in the spring of 2002. This case does not directly address the issue of how the community standards requirement applies to determining whether online material is obscene (speech that does not receive First Amendment protection) rather than merely indecent (harmful for minors but protected for adults). The court's ruling will nonetheless be significant in terms of the future of the "community standards" test for obscenity online. WORKS CITED: Child Online Protection Act. http://www.epic.org/free_speech/censorship/copa.html Communications Decency Act. http://www.epic.org/CDA/cda.html "Legal Challenge to COPA" http://www.epic.org/free_speech/copa/complaint.html
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Attection Deficit Disorder To be nobody-but-myself--in a world which is doing its best, night and day, to make you everybody else-means to fight the hardest battle which any human being can fight, and never stop fighting. -E.E. Cummings, 1958 Attention Deficit Disorder is a long and some what mysterious sounding name that tries to describe something you probably already call Hyperactivity. But, attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is much more that Hyperactivity. History of ADD In 1902 children who demonstrated many of the symptoms that are today part of attention deficit disorder would be described as children with "morbid defects in moral control". In the 1940's, children exhibiting this form of behavior were diagnosed with "brain injured syndrome" because children with brain injuries from disease or trauma behave in much the same way. Any child displaying these behaviors regardless of evidence of brain injury were diagnosed as having brain injury syndrome. What Causes ADD? ADD may be caused by a abnormally from trauma, disease, fetal exposure to alcohol and tobacco, or high levels of Lead. In parts of the brain there is a diminished activity in the morphology and frontal region of the brain. Statistics of ADD Most of the diagnosis is at childhood. Experts say that over 2 million (3 to 5%) children have ADD. About 50% of these 2 million children who have ADD are believed to be underachievers. Also with this 50% the children are believed to have social and academic difficulties. About 40% of the 2 million have a 40% IQ discrepancy. The glad part is that 80% - 90% of these children receive medication for there problem, but most of them still need behavior modifications. Most schools help with that. Behaviors Observed in ADD Some characteristics are: -Makes careless mistakes in school work. -Dislikes tasks that involve sustaining mental effort. -Has difficulty sustaining attention. -Does not seem to listen when spoken to. -Often loses things. -Does not follow through on instructions. -Often distracted. -Has difficulty organizing tasks. -Often forgetful in daily activities. Six or more of the following symptoms will result in the diagnosis of peractivity- impulsivity: Hyperactivity Impulsivity Fidgets or squirms Often talks excessively Often leaves seat in classroom Often blurts out answers Often runs about inappropriately Often has difficulty waiting turn Difficulty playing quietly Often interrupts others Also while the person with ADD gets older the Impulsivity gets more consistent. Usually girls don't show Impulsivity as much as guys. How To Help ADD In The Classroom Researchers have identified classroom characteristics which promote success for many children that have ADD: -predictability -structure -shorter work periods -small teacher to pupil ratio -more individualized instruction -interesting curriculum -use of positive reinforcements The teachers attitude is very helpful if she/he has the following characteristics:
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Discretion is one of the tools used by police officers discretion that allows them to adapt to changing conditions in society. This vital aspect of his position helps the officer to fairly and equitably apply and enforce the laws he has sworn to uphold. Using Discretion At some point in their lives, everyone uses discretion at one time or another. In the case of the police officer, however, discretion is an invaluable skill used in the performance of every aspect of his job function. When an officer detains a person for any reason, he must be able to qualify and justify his reasoning for the stop. If he is unable to do so, he may find himself not only in an awkward situation legally, but potentially a life-threatening one. Officers use professional discretion in a myriad of ways, from the more mundane; pulling a vehicle over because an officer observed a motorist demonstrating suspicious behavior to entering a home without a warrant due to exigent circumstances. Either way, there must be a policy in effect to control arbitrary discretion. Discretion under Control Controlling discretion should start long before the hiring process begins. The most suitable method would be a double-pronged test. The first examination would be a formal, standardized, psychological test followed up with an oral review of specific situations that an officer might run across on a daily basis. Once a candidate is hired, role-playing would be the next logical avenue to follow to hone and maintain an officerÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities to handle a wide variety of situations. Another alternative for controlling discretion would be an agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s use of mechanical devices to monitor common areas and generate automated enforcement documents. Photo radar, red light cameras and generalized video surveillance are three examples of such measures. This may be a viable option for satisfying the community and making sure that all laws are enforced free of bias or opinion. Using these methods, all applicable laws and policies are followed and discrimination is kept to a minimum. Full Enforcement: Smoke and Mirrors Society is under the impression that police officers are in compliance with the complete, unilateral enforcement of all laws. This mythical aspect of policing does more harm than good in most situations since this false impression can lead to feelings of discrimination or persecution. The reality of the situation is that police officers have considerable, although unofficial, latitude in their decision-making process for day-to-day operations. Ã¢â¬Å"Officers are paid to make specialized decisions through a prism of their training, experience and totality of the circumstances. (Petrocelli, 2007) Police officers are allowed to diverge from full enforcement for numerous reasons and in a wide variety of different manners. However, the law and departmental policy must set limits on the amount and extent of discretion on the part of the officers. To that end, a number of different scenarios can be examined and the implications of an officerÃ¢â¬â¢s judgment can be seen. Actions and Reactions Here are some examples of actions and reactions that can affect, or are the result, of an officerÃ¢â¬â¢s exercise of his discretion. When it comes to the use of force, the police must exercise caution. For instance, when an officer finds himself with a suspect that he is absolutely certain knows the whereabouts of a kidnapped child. After a bit of hard core interrogation the suspect is still unwilling to give the location of the child. In order to obtain a confession, the officer might feel he is justified in using a considerable amount of force in acquiring this information. However, case law states that this would be an unreasonable method of obtaining a confession, even if a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life was at stake. On the other hand, when exigent circumstances occur, a police officer is forced to use his discretion on the spot. A dispatched officer arrives at the scene of a homicide of a well-known resident. Repeated failed attempts to contact the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s spouse at his residence have created a sense of urgency among the officers to prevent any further unnecessary loss of life. In this case, entry into the residence without a warrant is justified. (Dempsey & Forst, 2005) This scenario leads us to another area of discretionary action: reasonable suspicion. If an officer observes a person who appears to be carrying a concealed weapon, he is completely within his authority to conduct a stop and frisk. However, the officer must have more than just a Ã¢â¬Å"gut feelingÃ¢â¬ , he must actually have some reason to believe that the person has a weapon (e. g. a large bulge in the back of the shirt, the grip of a pistol protruding from a belt, etc). The officer cannot just randomly stop a passer-by on the street and frisk them simply because he thinks he might have a weapon. One common misconception is that all arrests by police officers require that the suspect be advised of his or her Miranda rights. However, Ã¢â¬ËMirandizingÃ¢â¬â¢ a suspect is not always a mandatory procedure. For example, if a suspect has been arrested and charged with a crime but not read his Miranda rights, the only complication this causes for the police is that it precludes them from using anything the suspect says as evidence against him or her in court. It is conceivable that an officer has more than enough evidence to prove his case against the offender and it is reasonable for an officer to refrain from advising him or her of his rights in such a case. (Nolo, n. . ) However, should the police act on the information from non-Miranda statements or confession, any evidence found, is considered Ã¢â¬Ëfruit of the poisonous treeÃ¢â¬â¢ and is inadmissible in court. Lastly, the police can face the issue of denial of counsel. During a custodial detention interrogation, a suspect requests an attorney and the police inform the suspect that one will be provided. If the officer continues an adversarial conversation without the suspectÃ¢â¬â¢s legal counsel present, any information obtained in not admissible in court.Ã Furthermore, once a suspect has requested an attorney, the officer must immediately cease the interrogation or they are in violation of the suspectÃ¢â¬â¢s civil rights. Conclusion As we can see, the use of discretion on the part of the police is an integral part of their job. Without discretion, the police would have no choice but to enact a policy of full enforcement, which is likely to result in considerable distress among the communities. Control of discretionary behavior is vital, however, to ensure that discrimination is minimized and the law is appropriately enforced.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Continuous quality improvement (CQI) is the responsibility of all nurses and is vital when addressing the challenges of the health care industry. Provide an example of how you would apply CQI in your current or past position. The purpose of QI is to use a systematic, data-guided approach to improve processes or outcomes (Conner, 2014). Principles and strategies involved in QI have evolved from organizational philosophies of total quality management and continuous quality improvement. Connor (2014) emphasizes that while the concept of quality can be subjective, QI in healthcare typically focuses on improving patient outcomes. So the key is to clearly define the outcome that needs to be improved, identify how the outcome will be measured, and develop a plan for implementing an intervention and collecting data before and after the intervention. Connor (2014) points out QI methods as follows: Various QI methods are available. A common format uses the acronym FOCUS-PDSA: Find a process to improve. Organize an effort to work on improvement. Clarify current knowledge of the process. Understand process variation and performance capability. Select changes aimed at performance improvement. Plan the change; analyze current data and predict the results. Do it; execute the plan. Study (analyze) the new data and check the results. Act; take action to sustain the gains. Unlike research and EBP, QI typically doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t require extensive literature reviews and rigorous critical appraisal. Therefore, nurses may be much more involved in QI projects than EBP or research. Also, QI projects normally are site specific and results arenÃ¢â¬â¢t intended to provide generalizable knowledge or best evidence states Conner (2014). Examples of QI projects include implementing a process to remove urinary catheters within a certain time frame, developing a process to improve wound-care documentation, and improving the process for patient education for a specific chronic disease. The institution I have been at has been working on decreasing central line associated bloodstream infection and peripheral line blood stream infections. Numerous risk factors for CLABSI associated with needleless connectors have been proposed. Some are attributed to poor hand washing before manipulation, inability to properly disinfect the connection site dueÃ to poor design, aseptic d evice management, and frequency of the connector exchange. In addition, several studies looking at intraluminal contamination from the needleless connector have demonstrated that high levels of contamination can be seen colonizing the connector and subsequently moving into the CVC (Ramirez, Lee, & Welch, 2014). Even with varying levels of disinfection, colonization can still occur. Studies of current I.V. practices demonstrated that 56% of Registered Nurses typically do not believe it is necessary to disinfect catheter hubs and >90% of nurses do not cover an intermittent infusion (Ramirez, Lee, & Welch, 2014). The 70% isopropyl alcohol cap known as Ã¢â¬Å"CurosÃ¢â¬ is used as an attempt to reduce intraluminal contamination. The cap requires ongoing training and encouragement to change practice. Studies indicate that consistent use of the caps does influence CLABSI rates substantially in terms of morbidity and the financial resources that are expended because of CLABSIÃ¢â¬â¢s. References Conner, B. T. (2014). Differentiating research, evidence-based practice, and quality improvement. American Nurse Today, 9(6), 26-31. Ramirez, C., Lee, A. M., & Welch, K. (2012). Central Venous Catheter Protective Connector Caps Reduce Intraluminal Catheter-Related Infection. Journal Of The Association For Vascular Access, 17(4), 210-213. doi:10.1016/j.java.2012.10.002
Thursday, August 15, 2019
1.The Salon was extremely important for artists wanting to establish their reputations. How do artists address that same challenge today? For all its pomp and popularity, the manner in which The Salon aids in establishing artists mainly through the same way that people seek to establish themselves in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s modern times; finding a means to showcase oneÃ¢â¬â¢s works to as many people as possible. This was answered by The Salon by providing a grounds that had no parallel in popularity, hence reaching multitudes of audiences at any given year. Nowadays, with the absence of such tightly-knit cultural circles such as those in the visual art field, modern technology allows for artists to reach out and display their works for al to see, in an even more convenient way Ã¢â¬â through the internet. There are websites that host image displays, allowing artists to create a portfolio that is easily accessible and available at any time at their whims. Given time and popularity, one may even venture out into creating oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own website for the purpose of galleries and whatnot. 2. How did art reflect the periodÃ¢â¬â¢s preoccupation with science? At the time, architecture was already undergoing a transformation due to the influence of neoclassicism. However the biggest reflection of science in art during this period was the introduction of the Industrial Revolution which took place from the 18th century to the 19th century. This reflected in art pieces and such, showing the change taking place not only in art but in the development of mankind in a way where artists are somehow likened to historians, keeping tabs on the development of man 3. How did revolution influence art in the eighteenth century? What revolutions are influencing art today? Art in the 18th century were influenced deeply by the French Revolution as political and structural change we being implemented left and right. These changes found their way into art as well, for the change in society is often reflected in art through means descriptive of change as well. Not only was it the French Revolution that affected art in this way, but the Industrial Revolution as well. Nowadays, art is being greatly influenced by the digital revolution, wherein visual art is created through computers. 4. Neoclassicism was popular in Europe and the United States. (Just take a look at the government buildings in Washington, D. C.) Why was the style so appealing? What did the builders expect the style to express? Why do we think it represents us? Neoclassicism became very popular in the United States as well as in Europe for the fact that it allows one culture to honor their traditions in architecture, paying proper homage to that which had been developed by their forefathers, meanwhile allowing a bit of leeway enough to alter these traditions in manners unoffensive to the past. May of those who sought to incorporate this style in building were able to do so, honoring traditional values and developing current ones. It is deemed to represent us so aptly as it is important for one people to respect and honor and especially remember their heritage. 1. Technology radically changed 19th century architecture. What are some of the changes that modern technology has brought to architecture? How do those changes make our lives easier? How do those changes make our lives easier? How do they sometimes complicate our lives? With the introduction of innovation, most often the perception of man that has endured for so long Ã¢â¬â often as long as it took since the last revolutionary technology Ã¢â¬â takes a drastic overhaul; a major if not total restructuring or reinventing of tried and tested theories as well as practices. The art field is no different. With the introduction of modern techniques, from brushes to pens to digital media, art has undergone many transitions from one media to another, and from one technology to the next. Architecture, for example, has made developmental leaps and bounds through time as proved by the wildly varied architectural styles from different periods. Even as we enter the modern age, architecture continually develops to suit the needs of the current societal trends as well as tastes. Modern technology made it possible for new concepts in architecture to arise such as use of materials that treat the air around it, and conveniences such as with durable materials that remain lightweight yet sturdy. Advancements in modern technology have made it convenient to set into stone concepts that would not have been possible before. However, some of these concepts that up until recently had not been possible also allowed the creation of other architectural experiments that serve no true purpose than to prove its possibility, at the cost of practicality. 2. Why were historical styles popular in the 19th century? What did artists and architects hope to achieve by executing those styles in new materials? From the year 1800 until the end of the century in the coming of the year 1900, many architectural styles had grown in fame as well as practitioners, 19th century Victorian architecture in the land of Glasgow, Scotland, for example, is one of the more popular historical architectural styles of the century. It had reached its climax in popularity during 1817 Ã¢â¬â 1875 and was used to denote a grand sophistication about the structures at the time. It symbolized the boldness as well as the audacity and wealthiness of the people of Glasgow and even now, with the incorporation of the styles, it showcases the grandeur and bravura and pride within oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self. 3. Baudelaire urged artists to paint the Ã¢â¬Å"heroism of modern life.Ã¢â¬ How do painters and sculptors address that challenge today? Why do artists still think itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to do? Charles BaudelaireÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of Ã¢â¬Å"The Heroism of Modern LifeÃ¢â¬ was one he so boldly ventured forth in doing as presented in Salon of 1846. Nevertheless, there are still quite many artists who see it fit to tackle such sensitive matters in the way Charles Baudelaire did: blatantly painting a picture of despair and misery, all the time extending the factors of hope and mystery. This is deemed important by many artists of today especially in the trying, troubling times that beplague humanity today to show that no matter what adversity we may face, there will always be hope. 4. When photography was first invented, artists claimed it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t art because it was a mechanical process. What inventions are available to create visual images that people do not consider to be art? Why do artists still use them? The classification of photography by most visual art purists as a field unfitting of the term art stem from their perception of visual art as something that has to be rendered solely by the hands of the artist. As such they tend to discriminate against photography, wherein the images captured themselves may have long been around to have not been rendered or created by the photographer. However, the fact that photographers areÃ able to create visually appealing photographs are often the results of their development of various artistic talents; mastery of composition, knowledge of depths, and a keen eye for that which although seemingly mundane may be captured on film in such a way that exudes aesthetically pleasing qualities, hence should be considered art. In the same sense, these artistic purists also look down upon those who are able to create art through means that may be easily reproduced. Art trades such as the use of typography, mosaics, stencils, and the like are easily dismissed as not art or at least a lower form of it. What is often overlooked with these said fields Ã¢â¬â including photography Ã¢â¬â is that the conceptualization alone of these images is already an art in itself, let alone the execution and process of putting these said ideas into visual imagery. Thus artists continue to use these as they do not necessarily hamper oneÃ¢â¬â¢s artistry, but rather opens new opportunities to expand the possibilities of visual creation.