Monday, September 30, 2019

How do feminists explain inequality between the sexes and how do they seek to remedy it?

Feminism is the only ideology that believes that gender is a form of discrimination, if not the strongest of social boundaries compared to race, status, and nationality. For this reason feminists focus on gender inequality and the specific roles that men and woman lead in every day life as a result of gender discrimination. Feminism can be traced back to 1405 in the book by Christine de Pisan's â€Å"Book of the City of Ladies†. This book contained the basic skeleton of thought that is present in modern day feminism, as it celebrates and highlights women and their contribution through out history, similar to cultural feminism. This clearly shows that from long ago there has always been a demand for equal rights between the sexes. In the last century many schools of feminist thought have emerged as a result of this question of equality and many different remedies have also come as result. Today feminism is an ideology that has a very broad horizon, which is only normal for an area as vast and amorphous as gender. Liberal feminism emerged in the 1850's and was the school of thought that dominated first wave feminism. Liberal feminism is the belief that focussed on woman enjoying the same rights as men, and for this reason first wave feminism focussed on the public sphere of politics. Liberal feminists believed that the problem was in the political sphere of life, as woman at the time were literally not allowed in the public sphere of life. The British suffrage movement lead by mother and daughter Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst in the 1903 organised many forms of protest that were aimed at achieving the goal of the female vote. The feminists at the time thought that gaining the vote would be the most important right that women needed, and as a result the other gender divides in society would disappear. For this reason it is understandable to see why feminists at the time thought gaining the vote would solve inequality between the sexes as the external rights would affect everyday life, and internal affairs. Legislation was the only way that woman could gain the vote, and bring equality. Once the bill had been passed than it would be the responsibility of the ruling body to implement and protect that laws and this would mean woman having the same protected rights as men, or so they thought so. The methods that the suffragettes used to achieve this ranged from handing out leaflets, chaining themselves to property, and even to the use of hunger strikes. These methods no doubt gained media attention, but not necessarily positive media attention. However these forms of protests did increase awareness among other woman, and also inspired others to join the movement as well. The movement grew through out the 19th century, and had the clear focus of gaining the vote. Despite woman's obvious contribution to society it was only until the start if the First World War when they could prove they were just as capable as men were. When the war was over and won in 1918, woman over the age of thirty were given the right to vote in 1920. This right to vote was given for many reasons, woman had proved that they could do the men's jobs, and were just as capable. Also the government realised that as growing power in the world, the British workforce would be stronger if women were a part of the workforce as well. The voting franchise was further extended to woman aged 18 in 1928. The goal of first wave feminism had been achieved, woman had the vote and but this caused the movement lose the impetus. But it was clear that inequality still remained between the sexes, gaining the female vote had raised the political status of women slightly, but failed to achieve the original goal of bringing equality between the sexes. . The feminist movement did not stop here, but instead the opposite happened, feminists had to look at the bigger picture and not just rely on one piece of legislation to solve inequality. Where did inequality start? How is it maintained? But mostly, if gaining the vote didn't end equality than what would? These questions were the main focus of second wave feminism, which emerged decades later in the 60's. Second wave feminism aimed at achieving the goals that first wave feminism failed to achieve, and for this reason the movement this time was dominated by a more contemporary approach, radical feminism. In 1963 Betty Frieden wrote â€Å"The feminine mystique†, and the first chapter was called â€Å"The Problem With No Name†. This problem was what most women were going through at the time. Trying to live up to the perfect images of a housewife, but at the same time feeling empty and not knowing their true identity. The problem with no name took the idea of true liberation for woman. If woman were liberated in their personal lives, and then this in turn would liberate in the public sphere. Betty Frieden stressed on the message that women should not coup themselves up at home, and should broaden their horizons through striving for true liberation. Radical feminists like Kate Millett took this new perspective of focussing on woman's everyday lives further, when the concept of patriarchy was discussed in her book â€Å"Sexual Politics† written in 1969. Patriarchy literally means rule by the father, but feminists use this term to describe men's general dominance in society. Radical feminists believe that patriarchy is how men maintain the position over women in society. When looking at patriarchy radical feminists like to focus on everyday relationships between men and women. For example when a woman irons her husband's clothes, this can show how men for their own benefit use women and also how woman are confined to the house. It also shows that patriarchy starts from the home, and is built in the family structure â€Å"rule by the father†. Women are socialised into believing that they are inferior to men, they are socialised to be weak, and as Simone de Beauvoir said â€Å"Woman are not born they are made†. Thus the only way to get rid of patriarchy is summarised in the statement â€Å"The personal is the political†, meaning woman should liberate themselves in their personal lives as well. Gaining the vote didn't bring equality, because patriarchy starts from the family (the heart of society), patriarchy is maintained through socialisation, and patriarchy in turn shapes society. The radical feminist Shulasmith Firestone looks at how women are biologically weaker than men, and how this makes it possible for men to dominate women. She argues that woman have the ability to have babies, this links to menstruation, breast- feeding, and childbirth, which are all disadvantages as they limit what a woman can do in her life. These biological characteristics also take away large amounts of freedom from women. One of the reasons why woman are mostly in low paid, part time work, is because they have other commitments at home. Most of the high well-paid jobs, are dominated by men, this may be because of the gaps in employment that woman take when pregnant and so fail to get promoted. Her solution to this is to defy women's nature with the aid of modern technology. Ideally women should have complete control over their ability to give birth and this will mean that children will be born outside the womb. However women taking control of their biology will only be the first step towards women being completely in control of every aspect if their lives. Radical feminism goes against Liberal feminism in one way, liberal feminists believe that the state and legislation is the solution to gaining equality. However radical feminists believe that the state is used as a tool that keeps women in an inferior position in society. Radical feminism also believes in the concept of sisterhood, and this is shown through how Shulasmith Firestone, stresses that the biological family is present in all societies. Showing that all women are suffering, and weak as a result of their biology. This is why radical feminists believe that woman should all be united in their struggle, against men, and towards true liberation. Sisterhood is important to radical feminists, as it strengthens the movement, and woman will be able to seek strength in each other rather than rely on men. The other schools of feminists thought that have come about after the 60's is Marxist feminism, which focuses on how woman are abused by the capitalist system. Marxists feminists like Sue Sharpe states that women are used as a surplus labour force ready for to be used and disposed of easily. Also that women are drained of their energy and time, through maintaining the present workforce (their husbands), and also at the same time rearing the future workforce (their children). Marxist feminists stress on how woman are used and abused in both the home and the workplace, and men dominate both environments. Another school of feminist thought is ecofeminism, which looks at the link between nature and females. Ecofeminists like Van Plumwood believe that the world would be a better place if women were in charge. The reason for this is that woman innately are more caring than men, they have they ability to raise children and nurture human life. Ecofeminists also focus on the state of the world today, pollution, global warming, the dumping of toxic wastes, and other environmental issues. But some feminists argue that this form of feminism is reactionary, meaning that it takes woman backwards away from progress, as it is taking the female role back to biology. This is similar to pro-womnism that also focuses on the positive side about women's role to reproduce. These two schools of thought would clash with radical feminist who believe that women are handicapped due to their nature. Black feminism is a school of feminist thought, which mixes race with gender. It is the argument that white woman dominates the feminist movement and political scene mainly. This may be true as it was the middle class women, that had the time and the money to involve themselves in politics, and they were usually white. New feminism can be viewed as the third wave of feminism but it hasn't really come crashing like the other two previous waves. Maybe because the movement has passed its use but feminists would argue that the movement still has its aims. New feminism believes in breaking the link between the personal and the political hence â€Å"the personal is less political†. This has been done because many women are put off by the obtrusive nature of the slogan. The statement shows that new feminism is trying to make women more comfortable with being feminists. This is ideal for women who do not want the their public life to mix with their private life. New feminism also looks at issues like abortion, pornography, which are controversial and affect woman greatly. This shows that it is not the end of the line for feminism because women constantly face new problems in a modern growing society, and need organisations that will help them. The feminist movement has changed greatly through out the past century, and no doubt a great deal has been achieved. Feminism by having these different stages has shown the world that it is almost evolutionary, and will be around for a longer time. Organisations like NOW are one of the biggest in America, and lobby a vast range of issues concerning women. Women today are still benefiting from the work of the past feminists, in areas of education, work, and politics. Overall the feminist movement has been a success, a remedy for true equality and liberation may not of been found yet. But instead many have been put forward, which have caused women to think further and also think for the future of â€Å"personkind† as well.

Sunday, September 29, 2019


history Olay is an American skin care line. It is one of Procter & Gamble's multi-billion dollar brands. For the 2009 fiscal year ended June 30, Olay accounted for an estimated $2. 8 billion of P's $79 billion in revenue. Olay originated in South Africa as Oil of Olay. Graham Wulff (1916-2008),[1] an ex-Unilever chemist from Durban, started it in 1949. The name â€Å"Oil of Olay† was chosen by Wulff as a spin on the word â€Å"lanolin†, a key ingredient. It was unique in the early days because it was a pink fluid rather than a cream, packaged in a heavy glass bottle.Wulff and his marketing partner, Jack Lowe, a former copywriter, had tested the product on their wives and friends and were confident in its uniqueness and quality. Olay's marketing was also unique, since it was never described as a moisturizer, nor even as beauty fluid. Nowhere on the packaging did it say what the product actually did. Print adverts used copy such as â€Å"Share the secret of a younger loo king you† and talked about the ‘beauty secret’ of oil of Olay. Other adverts were written as personal messages to the reader from a fictitious advice columnist named Margaret Merril.They ran in Readers’ Digest and newspapers and often looked like editorials. Wulff and Lowe, who ran the company under the banner of Adams National Industries (ANI), did not sell the product to the trade, but waited for pharmacies to ask for it based on consumer requests. As the company began to market the product internationally, it was decided to modify the name of the product in each country so it would sound pleasing and realistic to consumers. This led to the introduction of Oil of Ulay (UK and Ireland), Oil of Ulan (Australia) and Oil of Olaz (France, Italy, the Netherlands and Germany).In 1970, ANI opened a test market in USA (Chicago), and was expanding into northern Germany. Today The Olay brand has expanded into a range of other products grouped in â€Å"boutiquesâ₠¬  including Complete, Total Effects, Professional, Regenerist, Quench (North America), White Radiance (Asia) and Olay Vitamins (USA). Olay is the market leader in many countries including USA, UK, and China. [2] Olay has extended its heritage as a moisturizer to stay looking young, to formally creating the â€Å"anti-aging† category in mass stores with the launch of Total Effects in 1999.Active Hydrating Formula, generally the least expensive variety, bears the closest resemblance to the pink â€Å"Oil of Olay† marketed in the US before the P acquisition. The launch was almost double the typical price of a mass market moisturizer at the time. Today, there are numerous products in market more expensive than Olay. Olay Regenerist was the best performing anti-aging cream in a 2006 test done by a consumer association, outperforming some much more expensive brands. [3] This report also stated: But the U. S. onsumer union said none of the creams tested produced a dramatic improvement. : It advised that staying out of the sun or using skin products with a high sun protection factor was the best option. The consumer union said: ‘We found that after 12 weeks our toprated products did smooth out some fine lines and wrinkles. ‘ However, it added: ‘Even the best performers reduced the average depth of wrinkles by less than 10 per cent, a magnitude of change was, alas, barely visible to the naked eye. In August 2007, Olay was launched in India.Olay’s current slogan is â€Å"Challenge what's possible†, which was changed from â€Å"Love the skin you're in†. Since 2010, â€Å"Oil of OLAZ† is called only â€Å"OLAZ† in German-speaking countries. Slogan : â€Å"Olaz la? t Sie strahlen. † (lit: â€Å"Olaz lets you shine. â€Å") The Olay/Olaz brand is known for animal testing, according to a list published by PETA. [4] Marketing strategy Olay : Love the Skin You are In Brand : Olay Company : P&G Agency : Saatchi & Saatchi Brand Analysis Count : 277 This July P&G launched its premium skin care brand Olay in India.Olay is a $2 Bn global brand has met with phenomenal success in all the markets it entered. Olay was born in the lab of a chemist Mr Graham Wulff in the early 1950's. At that time the brand was named Oil of Olay. Later when P acquired it, the brand was renamed Olay. Olay was available in India as an imported product. Now P directly markets this brand with all the relevant marketing mixes in place. Olay is tapping the premium slice of the Rs 2100 crore Indian skin care market. Olay has launched its first product in the anti-ageing segment with its Total Effects subbrand.Anti-ageing segment is still a niche with a market size of Rs 60 crore. The segment is but growing very fast. Olay has launched its Total Effects anti ageing solution after much consumer research. It had conducted research on over 6000 ladies of age between 30-69 years from three continents and identified 7 signs of ageing. 1. Fine lines and Wrinkles 2. Sagging skin 3. Uneven skin tones. 4. Age spots 5. Appearance of pores 6. Dull skin 7. Dryness Total Effects is differentiating itself through the presence of the ingredient VitaNiacin.VitaNiacin is a pa tented formulation that contains Niacinamide Vitamin B3 ,Vitamin E and Provitamin B5 Pathenol + sunscreen protection. Olay true to the concept of Global Brand and Local strategy has launched itself with a series of promotional campaigns. The brand has the bollywood diva Sushmita Sen as the brand ambassador. Currently Olay is running two campaigns in the visual media. One campaign is th Olay brand building campaign featuring Sushmita Sen and another is for the Total Effects moisturizing lotion. Watch the Tvc : Total EffectsFor the Total Effects range, the company uses a testimonial type of campaign featuring a Model/TV Anchor. The focus is more on the functional benefits of the product rather than harping on any emotional benefits. The brand is positioned as a brand that celebrates beauty within and outside. The brand worldwide uses the tagline † Love the skin you are in â€Å". The brand believes that Looking Good and Feeling Good are inseparable. Loving the skin we are in is the most beautiful feeling of all. Olay Total Effects is priced at Rs 599 for a 50 gm bottle.By Indian standards, this accounts for a premium category. Olay Total Effects is targeting ladies between the age 30 – 60. Besides this anti-ageing product, Olay has introduced cleansers, facepack and moisturizing lotions. The brand is expected to introduce its blockbuster range of products in India in a phased manner. The premium skincare segment was in a vacuum ever since HUL decided to cater to the masstige segment by repositioning Lakme and Ponds. Now with P and ITC seriously looking at premium segment, the market is going to witness a marketing war in days to come.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Leadership in Health Care Organizations Practicum Coursework - 9

Leadership in Health Care Organizations Practicum - Coursework Example She was not an authoritarian figure but was rather a servant leader. She noticed my anxiety immediately and she empathized. She kept on assuring me that everyone has jitters on her first day including herself and there was nothing to be anxious about. She was very comforting and accommodating in my mistakes and rather than reprimand me for them, she was quick to give me a break to recollect my thoughts and calm down. She was a good listener and she often listened to the patients and the other nurses patiently. In case of any squabbles, she would listen keenly to all sides before making any judgment. This was unlike my previous supervisors who were quick to punish and pick sides so as to deal quickly with the matter and move on. She extended the same servant leadership to the rest of the hospital staff including the subordinate staffs without discrimination (Spears, 2010). Her main goal other than see her patients received the best health care and recovered was ensuring the growth of other people. This she did through making people realize their inner ability and strength and how they can use that to further their personal and professional development. It is this leadership skill in her that made me consider furthering my education and she pushed me and encouraged me to do so. Most individuals in power positions but who are not servant leaders are not concerned about empowering those under them. They are not really concerned about the future of an employee as long as they perform their daily chores as required of them. Having a leader who is therefore committed to growth of the employees was therefore a new thing to me to not only see but understand as well and this made me appreciate my supervisor even more. Her humane spirit and ability was topped up her exemplary role and ability as a servant leader. She had a way that would repair broken hearts and spirits (DelHousaye and Brewer, 2004). This was not only because of her ability

Friday, September 27, 2019

The Savoy Hotel- Marketing and Operations Report Essay

The Savoy Hotel- Marketing and Operations Report - Essay Example Introduction The Savoy Hotel has earned its reputation as a British icon since 1889. It has been known to be the first hotel to have electricity and sophisticated bathroom facilities. Its rooms bespeak of luxury, style and sophistication with views of London and the River Thames. In 2007, it temporarily closed down for major renovations and has now recently re-opened in November, 2010 under the management of Fairmont Hotels and Resorts. To recover from the expenses of the ?100 million restoration, the Savoy needs to increase its efforts to market and sell its services. This paper will report on a comprehensive contextual research of the Savoy Hotel business situation and its re-opening. Macro and Micro Environmental Factors This portion will discuss macro and micro environmental factors that may affect marketing and service delivery of the Savoy Hotel. A. The Internal Environment 1. Staff: Staff needed to believe in the philosophy the Savoy Hotel stands for, that â€Å"genuine hospi tality is achieved when engaging service and attention to detail elevate each stay into cherished memory† (, 2011, para.1) Thus, the staff themselves need to be committed to ultimate customer satisfaction with the way they work, thinking of the guests’ comfort and convenience while allowing them the privacy they need and deserve. Brown et al. (2005) recommend that staff be aptly educated in customer relations to achieve the satisfaction of the hotel guests and to enable them to build up the hotel’s good reputation through word of mouth. For many activities, such as product development (Hansen, 1999) and diffusing best practices across the organization (Darr, Argote, & Epple, 1995), expertise must be transferred and shared among units. Indeed, companies that are more effective at knowledge transfer have been shown to have a greater likelihood of organizational survival and higher levels of productivity (Dar t et al., 1995; Dyer & Nobeoka, 2000; Galbraith, 1990). It just proves how knowledge is a critical organizational asset. In the case of the Savoy Hotel, staff should be well-equipped with the knowledge and values of most aspects of the organisation, most especially in their own jobs. Having knowledgeable, courteous and happy staff brings about happy and satisfied guests who will keep coming back for more. These guests know that they are in good hands and with efficient staff who are able to provide them with their needs, it is likely that their satisfaction will bring in more business for the hotel. To take the advise of Nilsson, the person responsible for the resurrection of Scandic Hotels, decision-making power should be shared with sales and service-front-line workers â€Å"right at the customer level† (Goodman, 2000). Nilsson recommends a decentralized management system to focus on total customer satisfaction. So if a customer requests for something, the staff is able to decide on its provision without having to refer the customer to a higher authority. Of course there is a ceiling limit to this kind of decision-making and it has to be known by all staff. Since Savoy is part of a chain of the Fairmont hotels, it should also be given enough authority to come up with local decisions that concern their own

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Tv show critque Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Tv show critque - Assignment Example First and foremost, it is evident that the intention of feministic television was good at the first instant, however, over the years they have been used by women to levy attacks on men. On the same point, feministic television shows have at time come in between people marriages. Apparently, since they support strong women values, they judgement towards men has been biased thus have affected men negatively. Furthermore, due to this bias in judgement men values and right have been undermined with the sole intention of championing the woman’s interest. In summation, feministic television shows are good if they promote fair judgement as opposed to gender discrimination. Therefore, it is mandatory to observe this crucial factor and the feminism will be promoted to the highest levels using television and other communication devices as their medium of sharing ideas. To this end, feminist television shows need to observe gender equality or face abolition since they should consider the male species as an equal as opposed to an

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Operations and Business Systems Management (OBSM) - Business Studies Essay

Operations and Business Systems Management (OBSM) - Business Studies - Essay Example ny prioritizes some competitive criteria, according to market tendencies and concentrates its efforts to get a competitive position relating to concurrence’ (Santos et al., 2000, 2). The above issue was also examined by Rand (1999) who found that one of the most important advantages for a company that operates in the modern market is ‘visibility’ which was defined by Rand as ‘the capability to see and to understand the condition of the revenue-producing process as the revenue plan unfolds; the condition of the process is determined by the products position in the supply chain relative to the actual demand, i.e., the process is in good condition if the product and all of its components can be moved from their location in the process through the balance of the process in time to meet the date the product is scheduled to be shipped’ (Rand, 1999, 97). The above issues have to be considered when evaluating the corporate strategy followed by a company withi n a particular industrial sector. In this paper, Toyota is used as a ‘sample’ firm in order to investigate the level of effectiveness of corporate strategic plan as it is usually structured in most manufacturing companies around the world. The particular elements of the above company’s strategy (i.e. the most significant parts of its strategic plan) are then used in order to test the company’s ability to achieve its targets with a special reference to the ‘process types’ and ‘layout types’ that the company has chosen to use within the borders set by its strategic plan. Finally, the capacity strategy adopted by the organization is identified and evaluated taking into account the company’s internal and external environment and mostly its competitors both in the local and the global market. Toyota Motor Corporation is one of the most significant corporations in the automobile industry. The company was founded in 1894 and has soon become one of the world’s leading competitors in its area of

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Buddhism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Buddhism - Essay Example Buddha then offered to heal her child only if she is able to bring a mustard seed given by a family who has not experienced death. Kisogatami searched and was able to find families willing to provide her with the mustard seed but to her dismay each one had experienced death at one point. In the end, Kisogatami understood that death comes to all and she finally accepted the fact of her baby’s death (Matthews, p.115). The idea of death in Buddhism, much like in every other religion, is an acceptable and inevitable part of human life. But where death is usually the end of a life’s cycle in others, the concept of rebirth is a reoccurring process until one reaches Nirvana which is essentially â€Å"the state of being free of egocentrism and the suffering that it causes. Positively, it is joy and peace† (ibid). Karmic destiny is understood to be an invisible force to which certain events and something that even moral justice is not included as opined by some since some Buddhists regard this as the causation of suffering brought about not by their doing and beyond any person’s control. Weber (as cited by Keyes and Daniel, p.15) cannot â€Å"be a logical solution to theodicy, since it points to an ultimate force that cannot be comprehended in logical terms.† Cause and effect best describes the notion of karma and how it affects the life of an individual. Fundamentally, man seeks to find an explanation to the suffering which one endures and religion can provide for a comprehensive elucidation to this predicament by offering various and largely acceptable enlightenments. Westerns philosophers are among the supporters of how the notion of karma and rebirth provides for a substantial explication of suffering and the problem evil. Extensively compared to the Christian rationalization of evil, Max Weber and Arthur Henman together with Michael Stoeber points to the apparent logic of this Buddhist doctrines as a more reasonable justification than the notion of purgatory (Kaufman, pp.15-16). Buddhism has greatly advanced its presence worldwide and the logical appreciation of karma brings it forth as a simple yet compelling belief which can be attributed to its acceptability. In the strict erudite of theodicy, the conviction of God as an all-loving and all-knowing Supreme Being gives rise to the basic question of why does evil exist. This main concern of theodicy makes karma an inconsistent answer since as pointed out earlier, karma does not extensively discuss nor expound on the same because man’s suffering is by his own doing base on previous acts or wrongdoings. Nevertheless, Kaufman maintains that a modern understanding of the concept would elucidate on karma and reincarnation as it provides for an easy response to why suffering exists. He then accedes to the five recognizable flaws in consideration of karma. The first is that one does not remember anything in what is supposed to be one’s own past life a nd is thus inimical to justice since he would never know for what he is being punished for. Second is the fact that there must be a correlation to the amount of suffering in consideration of what was previously done and in this case, similar to the previous one, there would be clear difficulty in ascertaining what offense was previously committed. The third is what he refers to as infinite regress which points to questioning the beginning of the process and in this sense it ignores the question by the

Monday, September 23, 2019

Major Middle East Events of 1978-1979 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Major Middle East Events of 1978-1979 - Essay Example According to this religious groups, the Jews living in the Soviet Union had the right to move back to their country of ancestral origin, especially given that most countries. From a religious perspective, the three religions have a common origin, also from the region around Israel and Palestine, and thus it could have been their religious role to support the emigration of the Soviet Jews to Palestine. During the same period, most actions by governments were against human rights. The Muslims in Saudi Arabia were even against the act of the Saudi royal family. The Christians were in support of the Jews since almost all Christian nations led by the US were for the move against the Soviet Union’s banning of the emigration of Jews to Palestine. It was felt by these three groups that the Soviet Jews had the right to emigrate from the Soviet Union if they chose to do so. Uniting for a common goal was the only way to defeat the Soviet Union, which was one of the top world super powers by that

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Case Study - Essay Example settings in which there are various forms of actors and factors interacting with each other and eventually contributing to the organizational framework, Bolman’s and Deal’s leadership frames attempt to provide different scopes under which managers perceive issues/problems raised and behave towards implementing solutions (Mabey and Finch-Lees, 2008; Newstrom and Davis, 1997; Sasnett and Ross, 2007). The four frames of organizational leadership are: the structural frame, the human resources frame, the political frame and the symbolic frame. The structural frame underlines the essence and importance of rules, regulations, structures, organizational design and policies; the human resources frame emphasizes the aspect of ‘people’ within the organization by placing significant weight on the fit between organizational structures and employees; the political frame focuses predominantly on the concentration of power and competition between organizational members; and the symbolic frame emphasizes the cultural orientation of organizations as means of inspiring and motivating organizational members (Bolman and Deal, 1991; Bolman and Deal, 2003; Crist, 1999; Sasnett and Ross, 2007). Drawing upon the four frames proposed, this project deals with an analysis and theoretical application of the theory over the case of Nasa’s Challenger and Columbia shuttles disasters in 1986 and 2003 respectively. The aftermath of the Challenger and Columbia disasters revealed that the physical causes of the two incidents were less important than the internal – organizational ones that hindered greater problems in the overall communication and interaction between critical organizational departments. In both cases the lack of an integrated approach towards quality and safety procurement as well as the insufficient and ineffective communication amongst management and organizational members proved to be great contributors to the overall disaster. Palestini (2004) states that the

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Timeless Theme Present in The Crucible Essay Example for Free

Timeless Theme Present in The Crucible Essay One timeless theme found in many pieces of literature is the abuse of power. Many people who are in power, abuse their power, and commonly become corrupt or unjust due to the power. The essence of human nature is to crave power. Along with this craving of power in some humans is the corruptness and injustice when one comes into power or on ones path to achieving power. This is a timeless theme, as power and human nature have always existed in mans history. This theme may be observed in Macbeth, a play written by William Shakespeare in the early quarter of the 17th century and set in the 11th century. This can also be observed in The Crucible, written by Arthur Miller in the 20th century, and taking place in the 17th century. In the beginning, Macbeth is a virtuous man, or at least interpreted as one by those who know him. He has been thinking of power, but has not yet made any decision upon it, and it is really just a thought, a dream even, in the back of his head, which he seems to have no real intention of pursuing. One may see how Macbeth is virtuous when an injured Captain is coming back from the front, and tells Duncan and Malcolm about the battle: And Fortune, on his damnà ¨d quarrel smiling, / Showed like a rebels whore: but all s to weak; / For brave Macbeth (well he deserves that name), / Disdaining Fortune, with his brandished steel, / Which smoke with bloody execution, / Like Valours minion, carved out his passage, / Till he face the slave; Which neer shook hands, nor bade farewell to him, / Till he unseamed him from the nave to the chaps, / And fixed his head upon our battlements. (Act One, Scene II, l.14-24 Shakespeare) In this story told by the captain, Macbeth is a virtuous man. The Captain qualifies Macbeth as brave and even comments on how Macbeth deserves that name. This may be considered Macbeth initial and noble stage, before power corrupted him, to the point of committing numerous atrocities for the sake of power. Macbeth however is soon corrupted by the thought of achieving supreme power over Scotland, brought forth by the witches telling him that the crown would be his. The corruptness may be seen in Macbeth mostly seen in Macbeths path to  power. The thought of obtaining power has pushed Macbeth to contemplating murder much more than before, and he stacks up the reasons of why he should not kill Duncan against the reason to kill Duncan. One can see this in a monologue early in the book: [] First , as I am his kinsman and his subject, / Strong both against this deed; then as his host, / Who should against his murder shut the door, / Not bear the knife myself. [] hath been / So clear in his great office, that his virtues / Will plead like angels, trumpet tongued, against / The deep damnation of this taking-off; / [] To prick the sides of my intent, but only / Vaulting ambition, which oerleaps itself / And falls on the other - (Act One, Scene VII, l.1-28 Shakespeare) In this passage, one may understand that Macbeth realizes that the reasons not to kill are that Duncan is part of his family, that Duncan is a guest in his house, and that he is a subject of Duncan and therefore has sworn loyalty to Duncan. He then realizes that his only motive to kill Duncan is his vaulting ambition. This vaulting ambition corrupts him and seems to be enough to make him want to murder Duncan to obtain kingship, and to murder many more to keep it. Macbeths corruptness comes up many more times in the play. In order to keep his kingship, he also kills Banquo. He visits the witches again to know his fate, and they tell him to be careful of Macduff. On his return he learns news of Macduffs departure for England. In this passage, one may see how Macbeth resolves this dilemma: The castle of Macduff I will surprise, / Seize upon Fife; give th edge of the sword / His wife and babes, and all unfortunate souls / That trace him in his line. (Act four, Scene I, l.49-151 Shakespeare) This decision is an atrocious one, and is only being made in Macbeths confused fury to defend his throne. Power has corrupted Macbeth enough for him to want to hurt Macduff by any means, even if this does not benefit Macbeth other than to have Macduff suffer. This passage shows just how low Macbeth has sunk, and how twisted his actions have become since his initial stage. As one may now conclude, power strongly corrupts Macbeth. Originally he is a virtuous man, defending his homeland from rebels, yet he slowly gets transformed by power into a ravaging terror, destroying everything in his way. In The Crucible, power as a corrupting force may be seen through many characters. The girls in the Crucible tell many lies to become officials of the court. Mary Warren, for example, evidence may be seen in a scene where Mary Warren is speaking with Parris and Elizabeth: Mary Warren: You must see, sir, its Gods work we do. So Ill be gone every day for some time. Im- I am an official of the court, they and I- She has been edging toward offstage Proctor: Ill official you! He strides to the mantel, takes down the whip hanging there. Marry Warren: Ill not stand whipping any more! (59 Miller) In this passage one may see that Mary Warren seems to believe that she has gained power in the court, and we discover later, that this power was gained through lies. Originally she was considered to be part of one of the lowest classes in the Crucibles hierarchy of society, however telling these lies and giving false evidence has promoted her directly to official of the court, which is much more honorable and important than being a servant. She has therefore gained power through her corrupt practice. Another character in The Crucible who is corrupt is Danforth. He is an example of a character that has power, but then uses it unjustly. For example, in the passage where he accuses Giles of contempt one may see Danforth being unjust: Giles: I will not give you no name. I mentioned my wifes name once and Ill burn in hell long enough for that. I stand mute. Danforth: In that case, I have no choice but to arrest you for contempt of this court, do you know that? Giles: This is a hearing; you cannot clap me for contempt of a hearing. Danforth: Oh, it is a proper lawyer! Do you wish me to declare the court in full session here? Or will you give me good reply? Giles, faltering: I cannot give you no name sir, I cannot. [] Proctor, breaking in: Your Honor- he has the story in confidence sir, and he- [] Hale: We cannot blink it more. There is a prodigious fear of this court in this country- [] Danforth: [] to Giles: You are under arrest in contempt of this court. (98 Miller) In this passage one may understand how corrupt and evil Danforth is, as he has been told something by Giles in confidence, and he turns this into Giles being arrested. Both Proctor and Hale, two characters who are portrayed as virtuous and fair, defend Giles, however Danforth goes in opposition and has Giles arrested. Another way one may interpret Danforths malice is by the terror of the court which Hale calls their attention to in this passage. Danforth obviously reigns in terror and only gets respected because people are afraid of being put in jail if they oppose him, as in Giles case. A third character in The Crucible who is also corrupt is Parris. He uses his power as preacher in attempts for personal financial gain. One may see this when Proctor, a virtuous and honorable character, is telling Hale about Parris: Since we built the church there were pewter candlesticks upon the alter. [] But Parris came, and for twenty week he preach nothin but golden candlestick until he had them. I labor the earth from dawn of day to blink of night, and I tell you true, when I look to heaven and see my money glaring at his elbows- it hurt my prayer sir, It hurt my prayer. (65 Miller) In this passage one may see how selfish Parris is, and how he abuses of his position to get what he wants. We may equally see Parris when he is speaking with Giles, Proctor and Putnam about the pay he should be receiving and many other financial affairs: Parris: The salary is sixty-six pound, Mr. Proctor! I am not some preaching farmer with a book under my arm; I am a graduate of Harvard College. Giles: Aye, and well instructed in arithmetic! Parris: [] I am not used to this poverty; I left a thrifty business in the Barbados to serve the Lord. (29 Miller) In this passage one can see how Parris is trying to use his position as preacher for financial gain. This is completely in opposition with what the religion is all about, and what a preacher is meant to be doing. He is therefore, also a corrupt character in The Crucible, as he is using his power for corrupt reasons which are in opposition with the message he is meant to be transmitting. As one may now conclude in The Crucible several characters are corrupt due to power, such as Mary Warren, Danforth and Parris just to name a few. Mary Warren is tells lies to move up in society, while Danforth is unjust with  his power, and Parris uses his power for financial gain. In conclusion, a timeless theme present in both The Crucible and Macbeth is that power corrupts. Power corrupts because it is in human nature to crave power, sometimes overly so which leads one to commit terrible acts. In addition to this craving for power, in some humans, is corruptness and abuse of the power. The Crucible and Macbeth were written and set in different time periods, yet the theme that power corrupts is recurrent and is therefore a timeless theme.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Plasma Membrane: Structure and Function

Plasma Membrane: Structure and Function BENJAMIN  NHANDARA Explain the structure and function of the cell and the plasma membrane to include the division of labour and explanation of transport across the plasma membrane. All living things are made up of small blocks known as cells. These cells play a big role in the existence of all living things even though we cannot see the cells with our naked eyes. After we have a good look at the functions of a cell and all the organelles found in them we will have an understanding on the big role played by these minute organelles. Small blocks known as cells make up all living things. The cells that we will be looking at today are the eukaryotic cells. In the eukaryotic cells are tiny cellular structures known as organelles that perform unique specific functions in order to keep the cell alive. To help us better understand and explain what really happens in a cell we can look at a country like the UK. In the UK they are different government departments, organisations and sectors that work together for the good of the country. UK in this case may be likened to a cell and the organisations, departments, sectors will represent the organelles. In order to separate the inside of a cell from its environment the cell is surrounded by a membrane that acts as a protector for the organelles. All membranes are permeable to regulate the transport of materials in and out of the cell through small pore (Sue Hocking,2008). The largest organelle in the cell is called the nucleus and it is surrounded by a nuclear envelope which is a double layered structure made of two adjacent membranes. The envelope has pores which enable communication between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The nucleus is the control centre of a cell where all instructions are passed on to other organelles. Just like the parliament of the UK we could agree that it also has a similar duty to pass all legislation of the land and assess all laws to ensure a good and safe life for its citizen. The nucleus contains coded genetic information in the form of DNA molecules which are involved in the synthesis of proteins (Ann Fullick et al.,2015). The DNA detects what the cell is going to do and how it will do it. Inside the nucleus is a dense ,spherical structure known as the nucleolus which is responsible for the production of ribosomes. The nucleolus is like a factory. Ribosomes according to Gareth Williams (2000),are tiny organelles that are found in large numbers in a cell. They have a diameter of about 20nm. They attach themselves to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) after leaving the nucleus and this is known as the rough endoplasmic reticulum(RER). There is another type of endoplasmic reticulum without ribosomes known as smooth endoplasmic reticulum, the other ribosomes float freely in the jelly like fluid known as cytoplasm. Enzymes are synthesised in the cytoplasm by the ribosomes. While the main function of the endoplasmic reticulum is producing and packaging proteins. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum produces lipids and steroids. The synthesis of a protein shows the division of labour in a cell.   Ã‚   We also have some organelles that were first observed by the Italian scientist Camillo Golgi. These organelles are known as golgi, they appear as stacks of flattened sacs. Assembling glycoproteins such as mucin by combining protein and carbohydrates. The golgi also produces digestive enzymes and the formation of lysosomes. Lysosomes are spherical sacs surrounded by a single membrane and they contain some powerful digestive enzymes that help in breaking down materials(Micheal Kent 2000). Organelles in a Eukaryotic cell Fig 1 ( As evident in fig 1,we also have the mitochondria organelles which are important in the synthesis of energy in the form of ATP by a process called Respiration. This energy is made available to the cell in molecular structure. Active cells will normally have a lot of mitochondria available. C J Clegg(2000) says the mitochondria are relatively large organelles and has a double membrane, the inner forms many folds called cristae. Entry and exit of all materials is controlled by the outer membrane , as the movement of people is also controlled by the boarders that are in place. Cell membrane are present in all cells and they facilitate the movement of substances into and out of the cell. It also goes on to provide protection for the cell. According to Ann Fullick(2000) all cell membranes are made up of two main molecules which are the lipids and proteins. These molecules react differently as the head is hyrophilic(water loving) while the tail is hydrophobic (water-hating). Cell membranes are selectively permeable meaning they let in some molecules and keep others out Below is a diagram of a phosopholipid bilayer in Fig 2 AN IMAGE OF A PHOSOPHOLIPID BILAYER Fig 2(The Science of Biology,2007) C J Clegg (2000) says materials that go through the membrane will use the basic types of cellular transport which are available which are passive transportation(no energy needed) and active transport(energy needed). In passive transport we have diffusion(movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration),facilitated diffusion is also movement of particles from high to low area of concentration but this type of diffusion uses a transport protein. Osmosis also falls under the passive transport(special type of diffusion involving water molecules). In this type of transport the cell does not need energy. The second type of transport is called active transport(cell needs energy ). In active transport energy is needed as the molecules will be moving from an area of low concentration to an area high concentration. Endocytosis is the movement of large particles or fluids through the membrane into the cytoplasm of a cell(Bill Indge,2000). Exocytosis is the movement of particles from inside the cell. Finally we have protein pumps that are integral membrane protein that are capable of transporting protons across membranes. The cell plays an important role in all living things despite the fact that it is so small and also we have seen that the cell has many organelles which are present to carry out different and unique functions in order to keep the cell alive. Without cells there is no life. SECTION 2 1a) The cell is a eukaryote because the cell has a nucleus that contains DNA. b) Magnification = Image size Image size = 81mm x 1000 = 81 000 µm Actual size Magnification = 4 500 Image = 18mm x 1000 = 18 000 µm Actual = 4 µm Actual Image = 81 000 M = 18 000 4 500 4 = 4 500 = 18  µm The actual width of the cell is = 18 µm c) Magnification = Image size Actual size Image size = 81mm x 1000 = 81 000 µm Actual size = 4 µm 2. Magnification = Image size Image size = 81mm x 1000 = 81 000 µm Actual size Actual size = 20 µm Magnification = 81 000 20 = 4 500 Actual size for structure c = Image size Magnification Image size = 15mm x 1000 = 15 000 µm Actual size = 15 000 Magnification 4 050 = 3,7 µm REFERENCES Ann Fullick, (2000) Heinemann Advanced Science, Biology. 2nd ed, Oxon:Heinemann Educational. Ann Fullick, Paul Bircher, and Jo Locke. (2015) A Level Biology For OCR, London: Oxford University Press C J Clegg and D G Mackean, (2000) Advanced Biology Principles and Applictions 2nd ed, London : John Murray C J Clegg, (2000) Introduction To Advanced Biology. London: John Murray Gareth Williams, (2000) Advanced Biology For You, London: Stanley Thornes Sue Hocking, Pete Kennedy, Frank Sochacki.(2008) OCR Biology, Essex: OCR Heinemann

Thursday, September 19, 2019

A Man?s Vision Of Love: :: essays research papers fc

A Man’s Vision of Love: An Examination of William Broyles Jr.’s Esquire Article â€Å"Why Men Love War†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   â€Å"Men love war because it allows them to look serious. Because they imagine it is the one thing that stops women laughing at them. In it they can reduce women to the status of objects. This is the great distinction between the sexes. Men see objects, women see the relationship between objects. Whether the objects need each other, love each other, match each other. It is an extra dimension of feeling we men are without and one that makes war abhorrent to all real women - and absurd. I will tell you what war is. War is a psychosis caused by an inability to see relationships. Our relationship with our fellow men. Our relationship with out economic and historical situation. And above all our relationship to nothingness. To death.† John Fowles in The Magus A Man’s Vision of Love: An Examination of William Broyles Jr.’s Esquire Article â€Å"Why Men Love War†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The fact that war is both beautiful as well as nauseating is a great ambiguity for men. In his article for Esquire magazine in 1985 William Broyles Jr attempts to articulate this ambiguity while being rather unclear himself. On the one hand Broyles says that men do not long for the classic male experience of going to war, while on the other hand he says that men who return know that they have delved into an area of their soul which most men are never able to. Broyles says that men love war for many reasons some obvious and some obviously disturbing. Many books support this notion while few stray far from the admission of love. I believe that most sources indicate that men do in fact love war in a general masculine way. I also believe that the sources that do not admit to this love of war do not because of the author’s unique, face-to-face experience with war’s most severe atrocities. I feel that the sources, while few in number can faithfully account for the average soldier in any war in the twentieth century, which Broyles applies his argument to.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Stories of combat provide a way of coping with a fundamental tension of war: although the act of killing another person in battle may invoke a wave of nauseous distress, it may also incite intense feelings of pleasure. William Broyles was one of many combat soldiers who articulated this ambiguity.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Huckleberry Finn ( Huck Finn ) :: Essays Papers

Huckleberry Finn Huckleberry Finn is a loveable timeless classic written by one of the great American authors, Mark Twain. A companion to the Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn offers fans a closer look into the life of Huck Finn. Although the novel has similar characters and settings, the theme and moral dilemmas are much stronger than those we saw in Tom Sawyer. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn holds a darker side that Tom Sawyer did. In this piece we see an abused Huck try to figure out where he belongs in the world. He sets off on a journey to see if he can find peace and happiness away from the bonds of society. He is tested many times and in the end Huck ends up back where he started and he gives into the social norms of his time. Huck is a good person, unfortunately society has many different views than him and this difference in opinions pushed Huck away from society. Although Huck has the right views on many things such as Jim, he can not stand up to the pressure of society at this young age. Mark Twain uses the native southern dialect once again to enhance the quality of the setting for his readers. His use of dialogue is frequent and allows the reader to forget that they are in fact reading rather than sitting in on someone’s conversation. Twains’ use of vivid detail and wit amuse and delight readers. Mark Twain used the novel Huckleberry Finn to express a person’s own perceptions in the regards to rejection from civilization. Twain also uses Huckleberry to portray how society might not always be the best way for a person to live, rather choosing their own beliefs and ideas to live by. For example, Huckleberry doesn’t see the use of money and is satisfied with life with out money. Therefore the life of a drifter suits him just fine. There are also many other themes carried out through out the novel.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Differences and Similarities between 1984 and Brazil Stories Essay

The 1984 novel by Orwell portrays a perfect totalitarian society considered the most extreme realization imaginable modern government with absolute power. The Brazil story, Sam as the central, character is inspired by George Orwell’s novel 1984. Both the novels portray a state in which the government monitors and controls all human life aspects to the extent of having a disloyal thought against the law. The presence of bureaucratic governments in both stories reveals that everything is under control, and everyone is watched. Likewise, the main characters in both stories are protagonists of their governments and exhibits similar thoughts, actions, and personalities. The similarities between Winston Orwell (1984) and Sam Lowry (Brazil) mentions their lives as both live in pathetic little flats. Also, they both work for the government that controls news and records and finds their jobs monotonous but they don’t want promotion but the both love their jobs. Another similarit y between the two characters mentions that they both try to destroy the government that employs them. Sam develops a negative attitude of destroying his government after meeting Jill. Likewise, Winston secretly wants to corrupt his government beginning of 1984. Also, the protagonists rebel against their governments because they are entangled in love with women. They are both caught with women in similar circumstances. They were both lying on the bed after lovemaking session and they are alerted by a sound of people rushing in their rooms. As such, both couples are caught in bed under similar circumstances by their authorities and end up being tormented. Likewise, the reason for destroying their governments is because of love for the two women. There is also similarity in the way these two heroes dealt with their government. Sam is caught by betrayal by his two best acquaintances, similar to Winston who is caught by betrayal and deceit. The major differences between the protagonists are that the love Sam as for Jill is genuine while Winston is driven by lust. The main reason why he wants to sleep with Julia is because he loves the corrupt nature of the relationship. As such, Winston betrays Julia while Sam never betrays Jill. During the torture in their respective ministries, Winston is mostly worried by his torture, and he begs for stop and asks the authorities to torture anybody else, Julia included. However, Sam is concerned about Jill during his torture, and when he learns of her death, he still dreams of her. After learning of the death of Jill during his arrest, he dreams of being rescured by Tuttle and moving towards the countryside with Jill (Gilliam, 1996). As such, Sam doesn’t lust for Jill or because he wants to break the law. Jill is the girl of his dreams and he has no ill intentions for his government. Also, Winston, through his thoughts, had begun to deviate that would lead to his torture and d eath. However, Sam had not intentions of betraying the government, yet it turned out that way. In terms of government, the two stories criticize two forms of government. Gilliam tries to satirize capitalism while Orwell satirizes fascism and socialism (Radford, 1984). References Gilliam, T. (1996). Brazil: The Criterion Collection Director’s Cut, The Voyager Company 1985, Irvington, New York. Radford, M. (1984). Nineteen Eighty- Four (1984), Polygram Home Video, Chatsworth, California. Source document

Monday, September 16, 2019

Dog Food Essay

Dogs are probably the most common and numerous pet in World, and Mexico is not the exception for this rule. The purpose of this work is to analyze the characteristics of the demand for the dog food business in Mexico. This business has shown a CAGR of 3% during the last six years. Dog Food business is divided in three categories based on food type: Dry Dog Food, Wet Dog Food and Treats / Mixers. The most important category is Dry Dog Food with 89% far followed by Wet Dog Food with the 6%. There is another category division based on price: Super Premium, Premium and Standard. In terms of Market players there are 13 competitors in this category: The most important producers are EFFEM with 48% of market share and Nestle with 21%. Regarding brands, the most important are: Pedigree: 33%, Dog Chow 7%, Perfect Fit 5% and Eukanuba with the 5%. DogFood Brand Shares % 2008 DogFoodCompanyShares % 2008 Methodology For the analysis of the dog food market, it was necessary to do a research for the market trends (increase/decrease of dog population, education of the dog owners about benefits of dog food); the view of the dog owners about the dog food and its presentations, prices and quality. As well as the willingness of the dog owners to continue buying the dog food in the changing circumstances of the market (price raising, economic crisis, market substitutes, etc. ). The steps followed to achieve this objective are: 1. Bibliographic investigation of the market size for dog food in the Mexican market, the view of the dog owners, the companies producing dog food, price, substitutes. 2. Comparison of the indicated characteristics through and between years 3. Interpretation of the collected data to observe the market behavior for this particular industry, when faces changes in the dog owner view of the market, crisis or rising of prices. 4. Determination of the challenges faced by the industry. 5. Conclusions. Determinants of Demand: 1. -Price As up year 2008, the demand felt down 21% in comparison to previous year. Among the main reasons for this fall are: The row material cost of producers increased due to the Mexican currency devaluation. This fact â€Å"forced† the manufacturers to transfer the cost increase to the consumers. Since this market is considered an Oligopoly, the demand is elastic to the price changes. In addition, it is easy to find substitutes products; such as: Human food leftovers. The outcome of the described situation pushed the demand down. The â€Å"Mon and Pop† distribution channel leveraged the circumstances and offered the market Dog food in bulk. This strategy allowed them to maintain their sales in spite of the reduced total market. As a result, the producers decided to launch smaller size presentations, which in the long run stopped the sales fall, reducing the sales fall from 21% in 2008, down to only 3% in 2009. . -Marketing Initiatives -Dog owner emotional engagement fuels potential market growth Manufactures realized that the ratio of dog per household was still low, making evidence that there was still a significant growth potential. As a consequence, dog food producers encouraged diverse nonprofit associations to promote emotional engagement to the dog wellness. Dog owners started to care more about: Nutrition, health care and dog pampering. Therefore, the manufacturers found new market niches for new products, such as super premium brands focused on health enhancement or treats to pamper the dog. The current dog owning households ratio in Mexico has grown from 38. 3% in 2004 up to 40. 5% into to 2009. In order to exploit this booming market, different efforts have been done by producers, launching marketing campaigns such as: â€Å"Adopta un perro†. – Awareness of Dog Food benefits In addition, manufacturers realized that the ratio of dog food prepared vs. none prepared was too low in Mexico. Therefore, manufacturers began to develop marketing strategies in order to create a higher awareness of dog food benefits. These strategies were mainly implemented through: ) TV advertising campaigns Emotional situations between owner and pet were exploited by producers to encourage pet care i. e. EFFEMS Perfect fit showing a situation suggesting that the dog wants a balance life, such as the owner enjoys. b) Point of Purchase material. Additional exhibition at key seller â€Å"hot spots† were implemented to promote the different products benefits i. e. Hill Pet Nutr ition, which sells only through veterinary sale points, spread out brochures in the veterinary clinics and pet stores. c) Consumer Promotions Producers decided to increase sales volume in the short term by encourage the consumer through give away attractive items for each product bough i. e. Dog Chow promotion in which a dog bed was gave away when customer purchased a package of four kg and above; in a similar promotion, premium brand Beneful offered a free dog bowl. d) Sponsorships Producers developed different sponsorship programs to increment brand awareness i. e. â€Å"Incredible dog challenge†. e) Product Innovation In order to maintain, and even increase profit margin, producers improved the food formulations and packages. I-e. (Nestle’s effort to re-launch Campeon brand with a different formula using the slogan of â€Å"looking similar to human food†. All these efforts helped to reduce the shortfall of 8 pps showed between 2007 and 2008 down to only 1 pps between 2008 and 2009. Conclusions The market of dog food has changed in last few years, due of the changes in the perception of the pets inside families, mostly in developed countries. Dogs are the most common and numerous pets, and nowadays are treated as another member inside the family. Dog owners pamper their dogs, and care about the nutrition and general wellbeing of their animals. One of the findings about this market is that it has an elastic demand, strongly dependent of the income of the families in Mexico; as income decreases, the demand for dog food decreases as well. Besides, the dog food in Mexican market has one mayor (and almost free) substitute: the human food leftovers. Commonly, the families, mostly the low income ones, feed their dogs with the food they don’t use, or the parts of the meat markets that is not sold for human consumption. Because of that elastic demand, the industry had the need to change the ways producers do business. First, market players need ongoing innovation to adapt themselves to the changing needs of the market, such as: New and smaller size presentations, sales and marketing promotions, effective campaigns of education on how to feeding dogs with specialized and prepared food. These initiatives, along with dog adoption programs were key elements to increase market penetration. Currently, the industry of dog food is facing new challenges as low recovery of world economy, need of new formulation and customized and specialized products (aged dogs, puppies, small breeds, active dogs and sedentary dogs) demand from producers more effective sales promotions to change the mindset of the Mexican consumer about feeding dogs with the â€Å"leftovers†.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Lean Management

LEAN IN PRODUCTION AND SERVICE The word term ‘’LEAN’’ was put together to describe and personalize Toyota’s business activity during the 1980’s by a research team headed by one Jim Womack, Ph. D. , at MIT’s international Motor vehicle programme. According to them, the concept of ‘LEAN’ was fathered by Taiichi Ohno of Toyota. Ohno developed a contrasting approach to the mass production methods of US car firms through necessity. Later, in 1996, Jim Womack’s team espoused the five lean principles and also lean tools that they believed were the secret for Toyota’s success. According to Oxford dictionaries, Lean means efficient and with no wastage. The core idea of lean is to minimize wastage and at the same time maximize customer value. Customer value is of utmost importance to a lean organization and the organization will focus on its key processes to continue increasing the value. Ultimately, the goal is to provide the perfect value creation process that has no wastage. To accomplish this value creation and zero wastage goal, lean thinking changes the focus of a management from optimizing separate technologies, assets and vertical departments to optimize the flow of products and services through entire value streams that flow horizontally across technologies, assets and department customers. By reducing or eliminating waste along the entire stream of value, we will be able to come up with processes that would need less effort, less space, reduced capitals and reduced time in order to make products and services at prices far less than normal and with fewer defects. Organizations will be able to be responsive towards changing customer needs and wants with a lot of variety, higher quality, reduced costs and with less throughput times. Information management will also be much simpler and much more accurate. Lean management is a concept which can be applied in every business and every process. It should not be compared with a cost reduction program or tactic because it is a way of thinking and acting that applies to the whole organization. Nowadays, it is common that businesses across all industries and services, including the health care and even governments around the world are applying the concept of lean as the way they think and operate their business. Many of these organizations does not use the word lean out of choice and tend to label their practices as their own system, such as the Toyota Production System or the Danaher Business System. It is done to instill a point that lean is not a simple programme or a short term ost reduction solutions, but the way the company operates. the term ‘Transformation’ or ‘lean Transformation’ are usually used to characterize a company that is moving from an old way to a lean thinking way. this transformation requires a complete transformation on how a company usually conducts their business, thus, requiring long term perspective and perseverance through the changing time. It is also interesting to note that the concept of lean in production and servic e has the touch of one of the greater management thinkers, W. Edwards Deming who had great influence in Japanese manufacturing. He believed that the present manufacturing scenario is a prison of interacting people and stressed the importance of re-inventing the management processes in order to achieve higher efficiency and value. In implementing lean in production or services, I will be following the concept espoused by Womack’s team that stressed on three important business issues that will be able to guide the transformation process of an entire organization into a lean organization. In order to achieve lean objectives in an organization, it is important first of all to note that the organization and the people leading the transformation need to have a lean vision. In order to develop this lean vision, we can concentrate on three fundamental business issues which are Purpose, Process and People. By thinking deeply into these three aspects, a lean implementer can try to answer critical questions on the vision of the organization. If we are able to answer the key questions that I have associated with each of the aspects, I believe that we can develop a vision for lean implementation in our organization. The questions would be:- 1. purpose what are the customer problems will the organization try to solve in order to achieve their own purpose of prospering? 2. Process: how will the organization assess each major value stream devised to make sure each step in the value stream is valuable, capable, available, adequate and flexible? 3. People: how will the organization ensure that every important process in the value stream has someone responsible for continually evaluating it in terms of business purpose and also lean process? How will everyone involved in the value stream be engaged actively in the process of operating it correctly and continually improving it? As for the next step that I would take, it would be on the possible implementation of the core lean principle into my organization. This, I believe would involve the core of lean which is basically waste reduction. Usually, in an organization including production and service oriented organizations, we can find seven basic types of waste, which I am listing below. ? Producing goods and services beyond the immediate need of the customers. Unnecessary movement of products due to poor layout planning. ? Wasted motions when working. ? Time idling and wastage. ? Implementing processes that are unimportant to finish a product. ? Poor inventory management. ? Many defects in the finished product or output. Usually, waste will be present in any activity that does not add any value to the finished product or services. By trying to eliminate waste, the materia l velocity will be increase drastically. This means products will reach the customers hand in a very quick manner. This is an advantage because it delivers high strategic advantages beyond the obvious cost savings. Bad quality will be eliminated and lead times are shortened effectively. Eliminating waste can be considered as a strategic goal in service oriented and manufacturing oriented organizations. As I have mentioned before, elimination of waste will ensure increase in strategic advantages such as increased income and increased customer satisfaction. In adapting lean processes and services, we may be confronted by some constrains and challenges. The adaptability of lean depends on the nature of our business. We have to remember that there is a vast difference in between the service and production industries, and it lies in the source that creates the variation that causes waste to happen. Logically, manufacturing operations are far more controllable compared to service industry, because of its laboratory like settings compared to the service industry. Uncertainty usually does result from material and labor inputs, but we can still anticipate those uncertainties and take steps to control it to a great extent. For example, Toyota, pioneer in lean management is production/manufacturing based organization, and the employees, product esign and the production tools are usually under the control of the operations to a great extent, rendering it easier for implementers to anticipate uncertainty and implement the efficient lean management. In contrast, service organizations operate in a vast sea of uncertainty and risks and when uncertainty is present, it is much harder to anticipate and control variability that will be present together with it, For example, a project management company. We know that each project that the company will receive or implement will be different in nature. The volatility of the service industry, in particular a project management company, requires that lean management principles is implemented on a case by case method, i. e. different implementation and methods for different projects. This nature of the service industry is contributed by a few causes. Let's look at these causes one by one:- ? Uncertainty in task times. It is the nature of service products that the execution of each and every service delivery has some uniqueness. Taking the example of the project management company, each project taken may not be similar to each other, thus making it difficult to judge the task time needed. This variability in the service industry leads to a negative exponential distribution of task times. This simply means to say that most of the tasks execution will fall within a tight range, and some execution will take a longer time. Considering airplane boarding as another example, there is uncertainty present in the sense that it will take different amount of time among different groups of customers to board the plane. ? Uncertainty in demand. While there are ways to forecast demand in service industry, we can’t claim that it is 100% perfect. Usually, manufacturers buffer this forecast uncertainty with some finished goods inventory, but this is not the case in the service industry for example, we can forecast that reservations for a hotel will increase during peak seasons but it depends on many other fluctuating factors. Sometimes it is very hard to predict the demand of individual customer. As an example, a wedding planner essentially does planning job for customers wedding, but this lanning differs based on customer preferences, budget and also other factors. This uncertainty renders each wedding and the process that the organization goes through to put together the wedding, a unique one. ? Customers' production roles. As we can see from both the uncertainties above, we can summarize that it has much to do with customers. This is because typically, customers have some role to play in the production of a service, w e introduce variability based on how well we perform our roles. Customers almost always have to provide some information to the service agents to initiate service, and we usually have some tangible tasks to perform. So, as I have already stated it before, this condition create unique situations that needs personal implementations of lean in order to make sure wastage is reduced and value is delivered to each individual customers. Lean implementation involves finding solutions that will be able to offset the challenges and difficulties that we may face in our organization to achieve a successful outcome that will support a competitive operations strategy. Professors Kent Bowen and Steven Spear (HBS DBA '99), drew on a framework of 4 principles of the Toyota Production System that they believed will reduce the constrains, difficulties and challenges to a minimum in order to enjoy leaner productions and service. The framework contains 4 easily implement able rules:- Rule no. 1: all work should be highly specific as to content, sequence, timing and outcome. Rule no. 2: every customer-supplier connections must be direct, and there must be an unambiguous yes or no ways to send request and receive responses. Rule no. 3: the pathway for every products and services must be simple and direct. Rule no. 4: any improvements must be made in accordance with the specific method, under the guidance of a teacher, at the lowest possible level in the organization. Basically, my plan for a successful implementation of lean depends on the 4 rules given above, but I am going to give it some twist with adding some additional techniques that I feel would encourage faster and easier ways to overcome challenges faced by organizations implementing lean. I am going to add a three step initiative taken by Wipro, an Indian software developer, which can boost the implementation of lean, which are:- †¢ Abolish Hierarchies. Devise a bottom-up organization that allows many people to have a field-wide view of the process to spot problems and identify efficiencies. †¢ Continuous Improvement. Using â€Å"kaizen† initiative. Encouraging organizational level knowledge sharing through effective and efficient work improvement. †¢ Lean Tools. Use of tools specific to the process based on lean principles which can be utilized to pinpoint wasted time and effort. A combination of both these initiatives, I believe can lead to a lean flow which will be the tool that I would utilize to mitigate the challenges that can be faced during lean implementation. Drawing up a process flow chart that represents each step that a product/service would go through is essential. It is advisable to represent these sequential processes graphically in a flow chart. This is the first step towards an error and waste free production. For each and every products or processes that are present in the process flow charts, another level of details is required. This involves the task-level work with associated , with associated work-content times, with associated work-content times, quality verifications and worker qualifications. We can also produce a product/process matrix with products on the vertical axis and processes on the horizontal axis. At every intersection of product and process, this matrix, or spreadsheet should be recording the total reasonable validated work times that has been devised. We must also be able to calculate Takt. Takt is a German word which basically mean beat, pace or rhythm. Businesses, especially service oriented business must march to the beat of the customers and we must keep up with our customers pace.. Takt, can be calculated as, work time per day divided by customer requirements per day. This calculation represents how often each process must be performed, and at what capacity level, to take care of your customer’s needs and demands and be able to meet it as soon as possible. In order to have sustainable lean benefits, the implementation of lean must bridge the gap from project to project and also business practices. Quality documents procedures, policies and measures must reflect and drive Lean as a way of life. This will ensure success in reducing waste. Planning and procurement drives daily lean execution. Lean manufacturing is more responsive, with shorter lead time and greater mix and volume flexibility. We must be able to change our planning to take full advantage of lean. Bibliography Womack. J. P, Lean Enterprise Institute Inc. 2009, What Is Lean (Online) Available at: http://www. lean. rg/WhatsLean/ (Accessed 20th October 2009) Ahlstrom, P (2004) ‘Lean service operations: translating lean production principles to service operations’ International Journal of Services Technology and Management, Vol 5, nos 5-6 pp545-564 Spear and Bowen 1999 ‘Decoding the DNA of the Toyota Production System’ Harvard Business Review Sept-Oct Womack, J. P. and D. T. Jones 1996 ‘Lean Thinking’ New York, Simon & Schuster. Taylor: FW 1998 ‘The Principles of Scientific Management’ Dover Publications: New York. First published in 1911 Ohno, T 1988 ‘Toyota Production System’ Productivity Press: Portland, Oregon. Translated from Japanese original, first published 1978 David McPhetrige, 2009, An industry consultant provides guidance on implementing a basic Lean plan. MPO magazine. (Online) Available at: http://www. mpo-mag. com/articles/2009/09/meeting-the-challenges-of-lean-flow (Accessed on 21st October 2009) Hanna. J, 2007, Bringing ‘Lean’ Principles to Service Industry. Harvard Business School (Online) Available at: http://hbswk. hbs. edu/item/5741. html (Accessed on 21st October 2009)

Saturday, September 14, 2019

BCR Importance of nitrogen Essay

1. Probably they include negatives and, if possible, positive controls. Is your negative control a test plant that is planted in a pot with no legume planted in the pot? Do you have any other negative controls? How about positive controls? Are there some plants which you know will grow well under the conditions that you are specifying? Are you using these as positive controls, while your test plants will be a different type of plant? 2. I suspect they also include a method of checking, periodically, for results â€Å"over time,† meaning either daily, weekly, monthly †¦. 3. Wouldn’t you want all of your test â€Å"subjects† exposed to the same environmental conditions, with the exception of the one element for which you are testing. That means that all get the same amount of light, water and soil and that the light, water and soil are from the same source. So, you will need a way of measuring the amount of light, water and soil. If you are planting in containers, wouldn’t you want all of the containers made of the same substance, instead of having some be of plastic and some of wood? Wouldn’t you want them to all be the same height, width and depth? Wouldn’t you want them all oriented with respect to the sun such that none blocked sunlight from the others? Wouldn’t you want to weed them all frequently and regularly to insure that the presence of weeds did not adversely effect one or the other of your test subjects? I suspect that your instructor wants you to say in your experimental proposal write up how you will orient the containers and what they will be made of and what are their dimensions and how often you will check for weeds and measure light water and soil†¦ 4. Won’t you need to decide what constitutes a positive result and what constitutes a negative result. 5. Probably your instructor wants you to choose an objective measure for your results and state what that will be. For example: If you are growing other plants along with the legumes, will you measure the growth of their stems with a ruler? If they are branched, will you only measure the total height, or will you measure all of the branches separately? If they have fruit, will you weight the fruit? If you weigh it, how will you decide that it is time to pick and weigh it? At the end of the experiment, will you remove the whole plant, roots and all and weigh it? 6. Will you plant the legumes at the same time that you plant the test plant? or will you plant the test plant on day 5, 6, 10†¦ after the legumes have been planted? Will you plant only one legume to each box? If you have them growing at the same time, how will you orient your plants so that neither the legume nor the test plant will overshadow the other but that the roots of the legume are close enough to effect the soil for the test plant? Or, if you don’t think that will work, will you plant the legumes and let them grow and die before you plant your test plant? 7. How will you record what you have done? Will you make a spreadsheet and record that, for example, you have gave all the plants a cup of water per day or a quart of water twice a week? Where will you note the growth of the plant? how many weeds you pulled? Will you note the conditions of the leaves of your test plant or the conditions of the legume plants? Where will you note any unforeseen changes? 8. How will you write up your results? Most scientific papers have 5 sections. Does your instructor wish for you to include this in your proposal? 1) Introduction, 2) Materials and Methods 3) Results, 4) Conclusions and Discussion, 5) References

Afterthoughts on Material Civilization and Capitalism

Frenand Braudel’s â€Å"Afterthoughts on Material Civilization and Capitalism† offers very sharp insight on the birth and the growth of capitalism in the history of material civilization. His theory has been used as a theoretical tool explaining the globalization of modern capitalism. Yet, the value of his book is more than its utility in globalization studies. In this book, he criticizes the European point of view on the history of material civilization and extends his scope to non-European economy.Especially, he portrays economic history as a spontaneous, slowing evolution with long term equilibriums and disequilibriums, ignoring the history of economics as the successive transitions of big events such as the stages of slavery, feudalism, and capitalism. He thinks that the preindustrial economy is also characterized by the coexistence of inflexibility, inertia and slow motion. www. rpi. edu/~kime2/ehtm/myissues/braudel. htm Braudel notes that the exchanges from Europe across Siberia to China â€Å"formed a system of interdependence.† Moreover, â€Å"at the beginning of the sixteenth century, Russia's principal foreign market was Turkey† which Braudel also classifies as a separate â€Å"world-economy† â€Å"reminiscent of Russia. † Braudel terms the Turkish economy â€Å"a fortress,† but also a â€Å"source of wealth† and a â€Å"crossroads of trade, providing the Turkish Empire with the lifeblood that made it mighty. † The Turkish economy was not any more isolated from the rest of the world than the Russian economy: A long French report on the Levant trade confirms this impression: â€Å"[French] ships carry more goods to Constantinople than to all other ports in the Levant.The surplus funds are transferred to other ports by means of bills of exchange which the French merchants of Smyrna, Aleppo and [Port] Said provide for the Pashas. † Braudel then asserts that European trade in the Turkis h empire was minimal and â€Å"merely passed quickly through [because] money, the sinews of western trade, usually only made fleeting appearances in the Turkish Empire†: as part went to the sultan's treasury, part oiled the wheels of top-level trade, and â€Å"the rest drained away in massive quantities to the Indian Ocean.† In that case, Braudel should have asked what intermediary role the Turkish economy played between Europe and India. Then too, Braudel notes that caravan routes ran from Gibraltar to India and China â€Å"the whole movement-in-space which made up the Ottoman economy,† which â€Å"owed its suppleness and vigour to the tireless convoys which converged from every direction. † Far from having a self-contained â€Å"fortress† economy, then, the Ottoman empire drew its lifeblood from being a crossroads between other economies, none of which were independent of each other.Of course, the Turks tried to maintain their power, derive maxim um benefits from their intermediary position, and bar others from sharing in it as best they could. Turkish merchants, not content with their intermediary role at home, also â€Å"invaded Venice, Ferrara, Ancona, even Pesaro, Naples and the fairs of the Mezzogiorno† in Italy and â€Å"were soon found all over Europe, in Leipzig fairs, using the credit facilities provided by Amsterdam, and even in Russia or indeed Siberia as we have already seen. † The Turkish empire hardly sounds like a dosed economyBraudel calls Asia the â€Å"greatest of all world-economies,† which â€Å"taken as a whole, consisted of three gigantic world-economies,† Islam, India, and China. He even allows that â€Å"between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries, it is perhaps permissible to talk of a single world-economy embracing all three. † Toward the end of this period he observes that the center of this single economy became stabilized in the East Indies (beyond the bounda ries of these three economies) in a network of maritime traffic comparable to that of the Mediterranean or the Atlantic coasts of Europe.Of India he writes that for centuries it had been â€Å"subject to a money economy, partly through her links with the Mediterranean world. † Gold and silver were â€Å"the indispensable mechanisms which made the whole great machine function, from its peasant base to the summit of society and the business world. † Braudel suggests that the foundation of Europe's trade with India was the low wages of the â€Å"foreign proletariat† there, which produced the cheap exports exchanged for the inflow of precious metals to India.As â€Å"a historian of the Mediterranean,† Braudel declares himself â€Å"astonished,† to find that Red Sea trade in the late eighteenth century was still the same â€Å"vital channel† in the outflow of Spanish-American silver to India and beyond as in the sixteenth century. He might have n oted how American silver reached this economy not only via the Red Sea and the Levant, but also around the South African cape, and with the Manila galleons. Braudel did observe that the â€Å"influx of precious metal was vital to the movements of the most active sector of the Indian, and no doubt Chinese economy.† According to one historian, the â€Å"series of interconnected regional markets dispersed and overlapping around the globe† were really a â€Å"world market for silver. † Perhaps as much Spanish-American silver crossed the Pacific to Asia, where it competed with Japanese silver, as crossed the Atlantic. Like exchanges elsewhere, trade in the Far East was based on goods, precious metals and credit instruments. European merchants could apply to the moneylenders in Japan or in India . . . and to every local source of precious metals afforded them by the Far East trade.Thus they used Chinese gold . . . silver from Japanese mines . . . Japanese gold coins . . . Japanese copper exports . . . gold produced in Sumatra and Malacca . . . [and] the gold and silver coins which the Levant trade continued to pour into Arabia (especially Mocha), Persia and north-west India. . . . [The Dutch East India Company] even made use of the silver which the Acapulco galleon regularly brought to Manila. (Dennis O. Flynn, 1991). Temporary shortages of silver had an impact on Asia that may have helped bring down China's Ming dynasty.Prior to 1630, the inflow of silver from Spanish America and Japan promoted the monetization of the Chinese economy. The abrupt decline in silver production during the world recession after 1630 caused economic turmoil and bankrupted the Ming government, making it an easier prey to the Manchus in 1644. One scholar argues that it was no coincidence that the British monarchy was overthrown in 1640, and the Turkish government nearly fell at about the same time. (Jack A. Goldstone, 1991) Moreover, Braudel also finds a de facto globa l if not a world economy beyond the monetary sphere.â€Å"Long-term control of the European world-economy evidently called for the capture of its long-distance trade, and therefore of American and Asian products. † Braudel wrote: Who could fail to be surprised that wheat grown at the Cape, in South Africa, was shipped to Amsterdam? . . . Or that sugar from China, Bengal, sometimes Siam, and, after 1637, Java, was alternately in demand or out of it in Amsterdam, depending on whether the price could compete in Europe with that of sugar from Brazil or the West Indies? When the market in the mother country was closed, sugar from the warehouses in Batavia was offered for sale in Persia, Surat, or Japan.Nothing better demonstrates how Holland in the Golden Age was already living on a world scale, engaged in a process of constant partition and exploitation of the globe. . . . One world-economy (Asia) . . . [and] another (Europe) . . . were constantly acting on one another, like two unequally laden trays on a scale: it only took an extra weight on one side to throw the whole construction out of balance. Few historians have tried to determine whether and how cycles coincided across the supposed boundaries of these economies, yet such evidence could reveal much about whether they formed a single world economy.Braudel himself offers only a few indications of simultaneity across the boundaries of his world-economies. He devotes a special section to conjunctures, considers fifty-year cycles, as well as others that are twice as long and more; of these he writes â€Å"four successive secular cycles can be identified, as far as Europe is concerned. † On the one hand Braudel claims that â€Å"the world-economy is the greatest possible vibrating surface. . . . It is the world-economy at all events which creates the uniformity of prices over a huge area, as an arterial system distributes blood throughout a living organism.† Yet, on the other hand, Braudel ob serves that â€Å"the influence of the world-economy centered in Europe must very soon have exceeded even the most ambitious frontiers ever attributed to it. . . . The really curious thing is that the rhythms of the European conjuncture transcend the strict boundaries of their own world-economy. † Furthermore, â€Å"Prices in Muscovy, in so far as they are known, lined up with those of the West in the sixteenth century, probably by the intermediary of American bullion, which here as elsewhere acted as a ‘transmission belt'.† Similarly, Ottoman prices followed the European pattern for the same reasons. Braudel then demonstrated how such exchange transcended the economic boundaries he describes since the system extends throughout the global economy. Indeed, he observes â€Å"knock-on effects† as far away as Macao, even beyond the Manila galleon route. He also remarks that â€Å"historians (Wallerstein included) have tended to underestimate this type of exch ange. † Yet, Braudel underestimates this exchange as well.After reproducing a graph of the yearly fluctuations of Russia's exports and its wade balance between 1742 and 1785, he only observes â€Å"two short lived drops in the [trade balance] surplus, in 1772 and 1782, probably as a result of arms purchases. † The graph also shows a third big drop in 1762-63. All three coincide with a sharp drop on the graph of Russian exports, whatever may have happened to imports of arms or anything else. These three short periods occurred in Russia in the same years as three world economic recessions, which Braudel discusses at some length in another chapter without making the connection.In still another chapter, Braudel reproduces a graph of Britain's trade balance with its North American colonies between 1745 and 1776 that shows sharp declines in British imports, and lesser declines of exports in the same years, 1761-63 and 1772-73. But again Braudel does not look for connections b etween these recessions. This omission is curious since about the first of these recessions he writes that â€Å"with the currency shortage, the crisis spread, leaving a trail of bankruptcies; it reached not only Amsterdam but Berlin, Hamburg, Altona, Bremen, Leipzig, Stockholm and hit hard in London.† Regarding the next recession Braudel observes catastrophic harvests in all of Europe in 1771-72 and famine conditions in Norway and Germany. According to Braudel â€Å"capitalism did not wait for the sixteenth century to make its appearance. We may therefore agree with Marx, who wrote (though he later went back on this) that European capitalism – indeed he even says capitalist production – began in thirteenth-century Italy. . . . I do not share Immanuel Wallerstein's fascination with the sixteenth century† as the time the world capitalist system emerged in Europe.Braudel is â€Å"inclined to see the European world-economy as having taken shape very early o n. † Indeed he observes â€Å"European expansion from the eleventh century† when it was â€Å"suddenly covered with towns – more than 3,000 in Germany alone. † â€Å"This age marked Europe's true Renaissance. † Furthermore, â€Å"the merchant cities of the Middle Ages all strained to make profits and were shaped by the strain. † Braudel concludes that â€Å"contemporary capitalism has invented nothing. . . . By at least the twelfth century . . . everything seems to have been there in embryo . . .bills of exchange, credit, minted coins, banks, forward selling, public finance, loans, capitalism, colonialism – as well as social disturbances, a sophisticated labour force, class struggles, social oppression, political atrocities. † Braudel also doubts that capitalism was invented in twelfth- or thirteenth-century Venice. â€Å"Genoa seems always to have been, in every age, the capitalist dry par excellence. † Several other Ita lian cities also had capitalist activities earlier than Venice. In all of them, â€Å"money was constantly being invested and reinvested,† and â€Å"ships were capitalist enterprises virtually from the start.† He further notes that â€Å"It is tempting too to give Antwerp the credit for the first steps in industrial capitalism, which was dearly developing here and in other thriving towns of the Low Countries† in the sixteenth century. Moreover, the term â€Å"capitalism† also seems to apply at the most macro-economic level, for â€Å"if today's cycles do in fact have some resemblance to those of the past . . . there is certain continuity between ancient regime and modern economies: rules similar to those governing our present experience may have operated in the past. â€Å"Braudel, however, also cast doubt on the idea that capitalism was invented in Western Europe and then exported to Asia: Everywhere from Egypt to Japan, we shall find genuine capitalis ts, wholesalers, rentiers of trade, and their thousands of auxiliaries, commission agents, brokers, money-changers, and bankers. As for the techniques, possibilities or guarantees of exchange, any of these groups of merchants would stand comparisons with its western equivalents. Braudel avers that â€Å"the rest of the world . . . went through economic experiences resembling those of Europe.† On the other hand, referring to North and West Africa before the Europeans arrived, he writes that â€Å"once more we can observe the profound identity of action between Islam's imperialism and that of the West. † Braudel wants to â€Å"challenge the traditional image† that describes Asiatic traders as â€Å"high-class peddlars. † Moreover, after Braudel writes of Asians taking turns in a monotonous repetition for a thousand years of shifts in economic dominance, he concludes that: â€Å"For all the changes, however, history followed essentially the same course. â⠂¬  If we asked what changes in or after 1500 as per Wallerstein, the answer would be not much.Braudel quotes a contemporary French sea captain writing from the Ganges River in India: â€Å"The high quality of merchandise made here . . . attracts and always will attract a great number of traders who send vessels to every part of the Indies from the Red Sea to China. Here one can see the assembly of nations of Europe and Asia . . . reach perfect agreement or perfect disunity, depending on the self-interest which alone is their guide. † No Europeans, including their Portuguese vanguard, added anything of their own, only the money they derived from the conquest of America.A standard work on Asian trade notes that â€Å"the Portuguese colonial regime, then, did not introduce a single new element into the commerce of southern Asia. . . . The Portuguese colonial regime, built upon war, coercion, and violence, did not at any point signify a stage of ‘higher development' econ omically for Asian trade. The traditional commercial structure continued to exist. † Even Wallerstein recognizes â€Å"an uncomfortable blurring of the distinctiveness of the patterns of the European medieval and modern world†: Many of these [previous] historical systems had what we might call proto-capitalist elements.That is, there often was extensive commodity production. There existed producers and traders who sought profit. There was investment of capital. There was wage-labor. There was Weltanschauungen consonant with capitalism. . . . â€Å"Proto-capitalism† was so widespread one might consider it to be a constitutive element of all the redistributive/tributary world-empires the world has known. . . . For they did have the money and energy at their disposition, and we have seen in the modern world how powerful these weapons can be.Wallerstein's proto-capitalism also negates the uniqueness of his â€Å"modern-world-capitalist-system. † He even acknow ledges â€Å"All the empirical work of the past 50 years on these other systems has tended to reveal that they had much more extensive commodification than previously suspected. † (Wallerstein, 586-87, 613, 575) Thus, Europe's incursion into Asia after 1500 succeeded only after about three centuries, when Ottoman, Moghul, and Qing rule was weakened for other reasons. In the global economy, these and other economies competed with each other until Europe won.Historians should concede that there was no dramatic, or even gradual, change to a capitalist economy, and certainly none beginning in Europe in the sixteenth century. In conclusion it is useful to cite an Indian historian who writes that â€Å"the ceaseless quest of modern historians looking for the ‘origins' and roots of capitalism is not much better than the alchemist's search for the philosopher's stone that transforms base metal into gold. † It is better for historians to abandon the chimera of a uniquely capitalist mode of production emerging in western Europe.It is far more accurate and important to recognize that the fall of the East preceded the rise of the West, and even that is only true if we date the rise of the West after 1800. The West and the East were only parts of a single, age-old, world economic system, within which all of these changes took place, then and now. The historian Leopold von Ranke is known for having pleaded for writing history â€Å"as it really was,† but he also wrote that there is no history but world history. (Andre Gunder Frank, 1994) Reference: Gunder Frank, 1994. The World Economic System in Asia before European Hegemony; The Historian, Vol.56 Dennis O. Flynn, 1991. â€Å"Comparing the Tokugawa Shogunate with Hapsburg Spain: Two Silver-based Empires in a Global Setting,† in The Political Economy of Merchant Empires: State Power and World Trade, 1350-1750, ed. James D. Tracy (Cambridge), 332-359. Jack A. Goldstone, 1991. Revolutions and Rebellions in the Early Modern World (Berkeley); William S. Atwell, â€Å"Some Observations on the ‘Seventeenth Century Crisis' in China and Japan,† Journal of Asian Studies 45, no. 2 Wallerstein, â€Å"The West, Capitalism, and the Modern World-System,† 586-87, 613, 575.