Thursday, October 31, 2019

SOCIOLINGUISTICS- LABOV AND PENELOPE ECKERT Essay

SOCIOLINGUISTICS- LABOV AND PENELOPE ECKERT - Essay Example In developing a greater understanding of these processes of sociolinguistic investigation, this essay examines and compares the methodological assumptions and conclusions within the theorists’ Martha’s Vineyard and Jocks and Burnouts studies. William Labov’s seminal Martha’s Vineyard study incorporates direct linguistic observation with past recorded linguistic accounts to analyze the patterns of linguistic change among the island inhabitants of Martha’s Vineyard, Dukes County, Massachusetts. Labov identifies one of the key benefits of the study being the secluded nature of the island, and notes how this isolation is effective when formulating viable sociolinguistic analysis. While the island is sufficiently secluded, it also â€Å"has enough social and geographic complexity to provide ample room for differentiation of linguistic behavior (Labov 4).† Labov offers a description of the island and which elements of it will be included in the study, disregarding the nearly 42,000 tourists, as their transitory nature excludes them from contributing viable sociolinguistic data to the specific study. As a result of its physical seclusion and conscious resistance to mainland Boston cultural standards, Martha’s Vineyard is understood to have retained significant features of English indicative of pre-1800 New England. Labov argues that the most prominent feature that has been retained â€Å"is the retention of final and preconsonantal /r/. New England short /o/ is still well represented among the older speakers (Labov 7).† However, he indicates that such analysis of static English morphology is not the essential concern, and that instead the study will focus on the sociolinguistic determination of change and linguistic variation throughout the island. In addressing the factors associated with the determination of the study’s linguistic

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Research proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 5

Research Proposal Example Color also gives the customers an impression on the quality of food (Ciotti). Therefore, the right color will give the impression of good quality food sold by Gyro Hero and in the process attract customers. As shown above, the brand’s color is very critical in attracting customers. With the perfect color or combination of colors, the business will be able to keep a large and loyal customer, thus ensuring continued profitability and expansion of the business. The proposed method of research is using picture cardboards depicting different colors for the food truck and food background. Previous research shows that the target market for the food truck business is parents with young children in their homes and those within the age group of twenty-five to thirty-five. These groups of people would, therefore, make the largest proportion of our study samples. The research is done in simple steps of showing the target study group the pictures with different color patterns and then asking them for their feelings, thoughts and impressions on each of the color samples. Their responses are recorded and taken for analysis. The most preferred color for the food background was red followed by blue. We therefore, could use red and blue as our favorite color for the background. Yellow and green had a significant preference, and can be in use as a second

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Carlsberg

Carlsberg Company Overview Carlsberg A/S (Carlsberg) is one of the leadingbrewing companies in the world. The company is engaged in the production, retail and marketing of beers and non-alcoholic beverages. It is also engaged in the development and sale of real estate and operation of the Carlsberg Research Center. The company offers wide range of beer, mineral water, cider and malt based drinks through more than 500 brands including Carlsberg and regional brands such as Tuborg, Baltika and Kronenbourg. Carlsberg sells its products in more than 150 countries and operates approximately 100 subsidiaries in Western Northern European, Eastern European and Asian markets. Business description: Carlsberg A/S (Carlsberg) is the fourth largest brewery group in the world. The company along with its subsidiaries engaged in the production, retail and marketing of beers and non-alcoholic beverages. It offers beer, mineral water, cider and malt-based drinks under more than 270 brands. The company is also engaged in the development and sale of real estate and operation of the Carlsberg Research Center. Carlsberg operates through its several subsidiaries in Denmark and globally with over 45,505 employees. The companys beer portfolio includes more than 500 brands which vary significantly in volume, price, target audience and geographic penetration. The companys brand portfolio includes international brands such as Carlsberg, Tuborg, Baltika and 1664, and local brands such as Ringnes (Norway), Feldschlà ¶sschen (Switzerland), Lav (Serbia) and Wusu (Western China). During the fiscal year 2008, beer sales accounted for 75.9% of nets sales of the company. Along with core beer business, the company also offers Malt-based beverages and other beverages such as soft drinks, water and cider. These non alcoholic beverages are available in different flavors namely Coffee, Lemon, Chocolate, Angelica, Cloves, Raspberry, Prunes, Lime, Chili. Carlsberg operates in three geographical regions namely, Northern Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and Asia. The Northern Western Europe segment includes the operations in countries Denmark, Italy, Poland, France, Greece, Norway, Sweden, the UK, Germany, the UK, and Ballistic states. This segment plays an important role in the companys business portfolio. During the fiscal year 2008, the company generated DKK 37,128 million of the total net revenues from this segment. The Eastern Europe segment includes the operation in countries such as Russia, Ukrian, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Belarus, and Azerbaijan. In this segment, Russia is the largest and market and accounts for 85% of segment s net revenue. The partial acquisition of Scottish Newcastle increased the importance of this region in the companys business portfolio. During the fiscal year 2008, the company generated DKK 19,137 million of the total net revenues from this segment. The Asia segment operates in Malaysia, Singapore, China, India, Laos, Vietnam, and Cambodia. Carlsberg is one of the leading international brewery groups in Asia and has significant positions in a number of Asian markets and the Carlsberg brand is one of the major international beer brands in the region. During the fiscal year 2008, the company generated DKK 3,555 million of the total net revenues from this segment. During the year 2009 the company launched one of the worlds most expensive beers, Vintage No. 2. Further, it acquired 41% interest of Xinjiang Lanjian Jianiang Investment Co., Ltd and increased its stake to 89.3%. Robust Financial Performance The company has exhibited robust financial performance from the past few years. The company reported revenues of (Danish Krone) DKK 59,944.00 million during the fiscal year ended December 2008, an increase of 33.95% over 2007. The operating profit of the company was DKK 6,338.00 million during the fiscal year 2008, an increase of 31.09% over 2007. The net profit of the company was DKK 2,631.00 million during the fiscal year 2008, an increase of 14.54% over 2007. The higher level of earnings was due to the volume increase in growth markets. The strong financial growth of the company signifies its efficient cost structure and market share gains. Also, it would help in the future investments of the company such as strategic acquisitions. Market Leading Position Carlsberg is one of the fastest growing breweries in the world. It operates in Europe and Asia and sells its products in more than 150 countries. With the acquisition of Scottish Newcastle together with Heineken, it became the fourth largest brewery group in the world. It is the market leader in most of the countries in which it operates. The Group is the leader in the Western Europe countries with market share of 63% in Denmark, 54.2% in Norway, 37.7% in Sweden, and 46.9% in Finland. The Group also has a 45% market share in the Baltic countries and acquired number one position in Russia, Kazakhstan and Western China. This dominant market position and wide international presence helps in maintaining its market position and gives it the power to attract new customers and easily venture into new businesses. Consolidation of Beer Industry The beer industry in which Carlsberg operates is very competitive. With entrance of more new players and industry consolidation, the current level of competition is expected to further intensify in the near future, which may result in price reductions. In 1998, the top ten brewers accounted for 34% of the global beer market, but as the global consolidation process accelerated this figure grown to 59% in 2008. In 2008, Anheuser-Busch Companies, Inc. acquired InBev and the company along with Heineken acquired Scottish Newcastle. This industry consolidation increases the company and if the company is not able to maintain the product quality and consumer loyalty, this intense competition could reduce the sales volume of the company, thereby affects its market position. Decrease in Global Beer Sales The decreasing global beer sales has been a major area of concern for the company as its core business activity is the sales of beer across the world. In the first three months of 2009, global beer sales volumes dropped by 6.3%, due to global economic downturn, bad weather and smoking bans in some countries. Beer sales volume in Western Europe declined 1.6% organically in 2008, due to the combined impact of the financial crisis, smoking bans in France, the UK, Finland and the Netherlands, and extraordinary increases in excise duties in the UK. According to the British Beer Pub Association (BBPA), beer sales in the UK, in the first quarter of 2009, dropped by 8.2% as compared to the same period in 2008. As the company operates principally in European beer markets, the decrease in beer sales may affect the sales and profits of the company.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Blind Faith and False Belief: An Examination of the Development of The

The purpose of this paper is to closely examine the effects of children with congenital profound visual impairment (CPVI) and a possible correlation to the delay in the development of theory of mind (ToM). Specifically, this paper will compare a study that investigated how visual cues affect the development of ToM to a similarly themed episode from the popular television show Xena: Warrior Princess. On the surface these two groups may appear to be an odd comparison, for children with CPVI and Xena seem like they have nothing in common. However, there is one episode in particular entitled â€Å"Blind Faith,† in which these two worlds collide in a unique and surprising way proving and interesting parallel and additional insight into how blindness may affect the development of the theory of mind. In the article entitled, â€Å"An investigation of first-order false belief understanding of children with congenital profound visual impairment,† a detailed look at the development of ToM was performed. Theory of mind (ToM) is defined â€Å"as the ability to impute mental states to others and to interpret and predict behavior in terms of those mental states† (Green 1). In order to examine ToM, the study performed a series of false belief tests. False belief can also be explained as misunderstanding which connected to false reasoning. In the case of the children in this study, the false belief would be if they can correctly identify how another person would respond to a specific task, if that person had limited information that the children were previously made privy too. These tests are important because, as they article explains; the testing false belief is the most direct way to access if a person has a fully developed theory of mind (Dennett c... ...ere is a correlation between blindness and a delay to the development ToM. Whether it’s Xena or children with congenital profound visual impairment it’s obvious that visual cues are significant when trying to interpret the actions of others. Xena, like the children in the study, was forced to rely on other senses to compensate for the lack of visual cues, which is important because without them children are at a disadvantage to understanding the greater world around them. Works Cited â€Å"Blind Faith.† Xena: Warrior Princess. Created by Rob Tapert and Sam Raimi. Perf. Lucy Lawless, Renee O’Connor. USA Network. April 17, 1997. Green, Sarah, Linda Pring, and John Swettenham. "An Investigation of First-order False Belief Understanding of Children with Congenital Profound Visual Impairment." British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 22.1 (2004): 1-17.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Operative Report

OPERATIVE REPORT Patient Name: Benjamin Engelhart Patient ID: 112592DOB: 10/5Age: 46Sex: M Date of Admission: 11/15 Date of Procedure: 11/15 Admitting Physician: Bernard Caster, MD Surgeon: Bernard Caster, MD Assistant: Jason Wagner, PAC Circulating Nurse: Jimmy Dale Jet, RN Preoperative Diagnosis: Acute Appendicitis Postoperative Diagnosis: Perforated Appendicitis Operative Procedure: Laparoscopic Appendectomy Placement of right lower quadrant drain Anesthesia: General Endotracheal tube anesthesia Specimen Removed: One lacrotic appendix IV Fluids: 1700 ml Chrystaloid Estimated Blood Loss: 10 ml Urine Output: 300 mlComplications: None INDICATIONS: This gentlemen is 46 years-old Caucasian male with 3 days history of abdominal pain, however over past 24 hours his pain has located to the right lower quadrant and caused a significant amount of anorexia, he presented to the emergency dept. CT scan of abdomen and levis revealed acute appendicitis, lab showed a WBC count of 13, the laparosc opic appendectomy was explained along with the risks, benefits and possible complications. Patients voiced his desire to proceed. Patient was started on pre-op gentamicin. DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE: The patient was identified x2 in the preoperative holding area. Continue) OPERATIVE REPORT Patient Name: Benjamin Engelhart Patient ID: 112592 Date of Procedure: 11/15 Page 2 The final timeout was held with the nursing, anesthesia, and the surgical service during which the patient ID was confirmed and his surgical sight was initialed. He was given preoperative antibiotics. He was taken back to the operating room and placed in supine position. General ET anesthesia was induced. SED’s were placed on his lower extremities. His left arm was tucked at his side. A Foley catheter was placed. His abdomen was shaved, prepped with betadine solution and draped in the usual standard fashion.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

The American Dream

The American Dream is the idea that hard work and commitment will result in prosperity and completion of personal goals. It is perceived by many to be an easy way of pursuing and following through on their goals in life. Beginning in the late 1800s immigrants came into the United States looking for employment and the opportunity to succeed. These new opportunities would help lead them towards fulfilling their American Dream. The social class system in America determines the lifestyle and outcome of one’s life.The majority of people who are born into a low social class will continue to be poor throughout the rest of their lives. These people may have a goal to become wealthier, but these goals will never be fulfilled because of their negative ascribed and achieved characteristics. Positive ascribed and achieved characteristics help push people ahead in society and the social class structure. Negative ascribed and achieved characteristics hold people back and force them to overc ome these obstacles in order to succeed. Ascribed and achieved characteristics greatly affect the pursuit the Dream for people. The Great Gatsby, by F.Scott Fitzgerald, and Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck perfectly portray the effect of the social class system and these personal characteristics on the American Dream. Determining one’s success or failure is based upon these characteristics and ultimately determines the social class in America. The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, contains many different circumstances in which these characteristics affect their pursuit of the American Dream. Jay Gatsby, the main character of the book, pursues his dream by becoming wealthy. Born into a poor family, Gatsby tries to earn his dream girls’ love by making money.For five years he makes a great amount of money only to try and impress this woman’s expectations. He faces the problem of not realizing that the past is gone and he cannot get things that are impossible to reach. The book, Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck, shows the effect of social class and personal drive to reach the American Dream. Lennie, who is mentally retarded, faces an obstacle he will never be able to overcome. Although his dream is simple, it will never be reached because of this ascribed characteristic. Another character in the book is Curley’s wife. An ascribed characteristic that she strives from is her beauty.A negative characteristic that holds her back from achieving her dream is her low social class and the fact that she’s a woman. All of these characters have different limitations, but they will all affect their pursuit of the American Dream and result in the same outcome. The Great Gatsby shows the effect of ascribed and achieved characteristics upon the upper class. Jay Gatsby was born into a low social class. He falls in love with Daisy Buchanan who is very wealthy. His desire for love is an impossible feat that he cannot obtain because of his low social class. â€Å"Rich girls do not marry poor boys, Jay Gatsby† (Movie: The Great Gatsby).He pursues his dream by becoming wealthy and hoping that she will accept him as the same social class. A positive ascribed characteristic that will help him is the fact that he is a white male. This helps him because white men have a better chance of getting what they desire over any other gender or race. A negative ascribed characteristic is the fact that he was born into a lower class family. This will hold him back and greatly affect his pursuit of the American Dream. A positive achieved characteristic that Jay Gatsby, is the fact that he is rich after overcoming an extraordinary obstacle of beginning in a lower class position in society.His rise in the social structure from lower to upper-lower only took him five years to obtain. This is an astonishing feat in which he has succeeded and pushed himself ahead in pursuing his dream. â€Å"Almost five years! [†¦] It had gone by her, beyond everything† (Fitzgerald 101). Although he had become extremely wealthy, there is a negative side to his climb in the social structure. His negative achieved characteristic is the way in which he got all his money. The way that he made his fortune was through drugs and illegal actions. He lied to many people he was close to about his past because he knew that the truth would intrude upon his goal. I am the son of some wealthy people in the mid-west [†¦] San Francisco† (Fitzgerald 69). Gatsby figures that the only way to pursue his dream is to lie about his past. Jay Gatsby could never overcome his obstacles so he was unsuccessful in pursuing his American Dream. He focused on obtaining Daisy’s love and undoing the past. â€Å"Gatsby believed in the green light [†¦] tomorrow we will run faster, stretch our arms out further† (Fitzgerald 189). The biggest problem that Gatsby faces is the fact that he cannon overcome his unrealistic purs uit of Daisy.Jay Gatsby’s failure is a full result of pursuing something that he will never get; therefore, his dream cannot be fulfilled. The book, Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck portrays the effect of ascribed and achieved characteristics on people in the lower class. Lennie and George travel together in order to find employment and make a living. This story takes the reader through the pursuit of a dream by two men and what they go through along the way. Their mutual dream is to â€Å"get the jack together and we’re gonna have a little house and a couple of acres and a cow and some pigs and—† (Steinbeck 14).Lennie is a very strong, hardworking man who has a simple dream. The biggest problem he faces is that he is retarded. This negative ascribed characteristic is an impossible obstacle to overcome. A positive ascribed characteristic that somewhat helps him is the fact that he is a white male. A positive achieved characteristic is that he is extreme ly hardworking. â€Å"He’s awright. Just aint bright [†¦] But he can do anything you tell him† (Steinbeck 22). His problem is keeping a job in order to make money and earn a living plays a big role in his pursuit of the American Dream.His friend, George, says â€Å"If I was alone I could live so easy [†¦] I could get a job an’ not have no mess† (Steinbeck 103). His retardation leads to his problem with keeping a job and not being able to function in normal society. Not only did his negative ascribed characteristic of being retarded affect the pursuit of his dream, it ultimately led to his death. These obstacles are impossible to overcome. In result, he cannot follow through with his American Dream. Curley’s wife has extremely high expectations for her American Dream. One positive ascribed characteristic that helped her was her beauty. Her looks helped her throughout life.She was born into a low social class and later on in life she marrie d into the lower class. These are both negative ascribed and achieved characteristics of Curley’s wife. Another negative achieved characteristic of Curley’s wife is that she is a whore. She has the â€Å"eye† for other men. â€Å"She gonna make a mess [†¦] She’s a jail bait all set on the trigger† (Steinbeck 51). Before she got married to Curley she had a chance of obtaining her dream as an actress. She missed out on the opportunity and married Curly, a ranch hand. â€Å"I tell ya I could’a went with shows [†¦] she was breathless with indignation† (Steinbeck 78).When she looks back on it she finds herself to be very disappointed in her decision. She does not approve of Curley because he does not make enough money and is not up to her standards. â€Å"Spends all his time sayin’ what he’s gonna do [†¦] Think I’m gonna stay in that two-by-four house? † (Steinbeck 78) Even though she is in the lo wer social class, she visualizes herself in a higher position above others with whom she associates herself with. If it was not for her low social status I believe that she would have been successful in her dream as an actress.Her beauty took her a long way in life and it helped her become close to her desired goal. Even though her dream was not very realistic, she had many qualities that helped her. The biggest setback that she had was the fact that she was a woman in the lower section of the social structure in America. Her ascribed characteristic of being poor determined the difference between her death and fulfilling her American Dream. Throughout the novels Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck, and The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, many characters portray the effect of personal characteristics upon their pursuit of the American Dream.Jay Gatsby’s personal achievement could not overcome all of the obstacles he had to work around in order to obtain his dream. Even th ough he became rich, the past was over and he could not retrieve Daisy’s love. Lennie had some extremely helpful qualities, but he could not overcome his ascribed characteristic of being retarded. For Lennie, it wasn’t his personal achievement, but instead it was his ascribed characteristics which held him back from his American Dream. Curley’s wife had the desire to become an actress, but instead she married a ranch hand who was in the lower class like herself.Her negative ascribed characteristic of being born into the lower social class held her back from reaching her goal. These characters all contained their own distinguishable problems, but they all had the same outcome. Ascribed and personal characteristics determine the future and outcome of one’s desired goal and for these three characters, this was true. Personal achievement and effort cannot always overcome all obstacles and for many the American Dream is just an impossible destination to reach. â€Å"So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past† (Fitzgerald 189). The American Dream The American Dream: Money, Success, and A Home The American Dream changes over time, always based on society. In the 40's and 50's the American Dream was to have a white picket fence, a dog, a two parent home, and a couple of children. Today, it's a little bit different, the American Dream is to have money, cars, fame and success. The things I would have to say would never change about the American Dream and what It consists of would be money, success, and a home.The American Dream consists of money. I would have to say the American Dream consists of money because in todays society of money because in oday's society money talks. The more money you have, the more power you have. Money and power are what bring some advantages in America. It allows you to get your house, your cars, and your connections (the people you know). The American Dream today Is to have all these things, when you have money and power you tend to think you're invincible and at times in society you are.With all of this money and power you're not going to keep it a secret. Which brings me to my next topic, in which the American Dream consists of. Success and fame more importantly Success. The American Dream consists of success because in society seems to be one f the main goals. In everything we do we are told to succeed. Whether be sports, education, and our Jobs. So It wouldnt be a wonder that begng successful and known would be a part of the American Dream.Although gaining success would be reaching a personal goal and gaining money and power, success will not get you the last thing the American Dream consists of†¦ A home. Through all the years and times one thing has continued to be wanted and dreamed up, and that is a home. Not a house, not a mansion, but a home. A home is made up of love, care, and kindness. Everybody reams of having a home with a moderate sized family filled with love and compassion. A secure, serene, and yet free environment.That is a home, one of the things that t he American Dream is made of. In conclusion, The American Dream has changed over the times, but some things are clear. the dream is to have money, success, and a home. Money to gain power, ands with that money and power comes success and fame. All those things can never get you a home though. What does society say about what the American Dream Consists of: Society says the American Dream should say that you should have almost nothing but money. Money, ig mansions, a whole bunch of cars.To hang out with the celebs and Just be famous and known The American Dream By aminahpeacel 998 change about the American Dream and what it consists of would be money, success, todays society money talks. The more money you have, the more power you have. Dream today is to have all these things, when you have money and power you tend to of the main goals. In everything we do we are told to succeed. Whether it be sports, education, and our Jobs. So it wouldn't be a wonder that begng successful and known Dream has changed over the times, but some things are clear, the dream is to have The American Dream 1. In text two â€Å"Arnold Schwarzenegger Recalls Lesson From 25 Years as a U. S. Citizen – Learn English, Participate in Politics, and Give Back† by Arnold Schwarzenegger we are presented to the writer himself as an immigrant. He informs us about the responsibilities as an immigrant. As an immigrant you can’t come to America and take the best the nation have to offer without giving something back. You will succeed at the American Dream with hard work and determination and because of the generosity of the American people. We are introduced to the way to become a great American citizen.You have to learn the language and blend in with the culture but in the meantime you can still be proud of your own heritage. You also have to participate in the political process. To maintain a strong democracy with real change you have to be involved. It is a way to freedom and many Americans have sacrificed their lives in war to preserve their freedom. Last but not least you hav e to give something back. As well as former great immigrants who performed a great service for the nation, new immigrants ought to do the same. There is no limit on what you can achieve.In text three â€Å"Whose American Dream Is It, Anyway? † by Anya Kamenetz we become aware of the fact that Americans are more pessimistic about their lives now than at any time in the past half-century. One of the most fundamental assumptions of the American Dream is the belief that money and ownership of material things will increase. But this is no longer how the situation is. We reached a point where this will not make us any happier. In addition to this fact it seems that the planet can’t take the increasing pollution which follows.We are presented to a prediction that young people will choose a scaled down lifestyle and trade money for time. We need a new American Dream that will restore the social safety net and we need optimism for that. Text four â€Å"Is the American Dream St ill Possible? † by David Wallechinsky comes across the question written in the title. The question is based on the fact that many Americans are struggling financially. Nevertheless they still take responsibility for their own financial destiny. This is showed by an example with a single mother providing for 4 children. 2. Compare language, tone and style in texts 1 and 2.The two texts â€Å"What is the American Dream† and â€Å"Arnold Schwarzenegger Recalls Lesson From 25 Years as a U. S. Citizen – Learn English, Participate in Politics, and Give Back† are very different in their way of influencing the readers. In text one is used a very eloquent language which indicates that we are dealing with a well-educated writer. Another sign of the fact that he is well-educated is the use of difficult words which mean that you have to know synonyms of the words to fully understand the text. The text contains alliterations, a definition and a lot of quotes from well- known authorities.The style of the text is to question some relevant elements but on the other hand it expresses a really certain way of using the words. It makes you give everything an extra thought. The form of the text gives you the impression that the American Dream is attainable for everyone because of the fact that we all have unalienable rights. Contrary to text one text two is more personal. This is indicated by the use of many personal pronouns like â€Å"I† and â€Å"you† in the language. The language is very common which means that everyone can understand. Therefore the text approaches a wider target group.A lot of alliterations are used: â€Å"Honor, heritage†, â€Å"learn language†, and â€Å"died defending†. The text also contains a lot of positive words as freedom and the American Dream. The style of this text is more convincing, personal, and average so everyone can participate and understand, than text two. It is a very obliging an d explanatory tone. It expresses that everyone is worth something great. 3. As it is questioned in text four â€Å"Is the American Dream Still Possible? †: â€Å"Does the dream survive? I believe that everyone has a dream. It might not be the same dream but it is there.We all believe in our dream and hope for it to come true. We do our very best to achieve our dream. We do this with optimism even though times can be tough and the means can be poor. Our dream will show us the way back from tragedy and depression, our dream is where we are headed. The American Dream is a common dream. Many people unite around the fact that they have the same dream. It is a good dream because dreams keep our hopes up and lead us in the right direction. So I find the American dream a positive and good focal point in our lives. If we lose sight of our own dreams we still have the American Dream.It is of great value for those who lost track and need something good to believe in. We can affect the American Dream by making it our own dream. Therefore I believe that the American Dream will survive, it will survive in many of us. When going through rough times is when we realize that the dream is most needed. The dream of something better than you are going through at the time, is what you need. Which dream you have chosen to follow is not the important part. You will be recognized for your effort whether you have chosen the American Dream or another dream, as long as you have a dream. The American Dream 1. In text two â€Å"Arnold Schwarzenegger Recalls Lesson From 25 Years as a U. S. Citizen – Learn English, Participate in Politics, and Give Back† by Arnold Schwarzenegger we are presented to the writer himself as an immigrant. He informs us about the responsibilities as an immigrant. As an immigrant you can’t come to America and take the best the nation have to offer without giving something back. You will succeed at the American Dream with hard work and determination and because of the generosity of the American people. We are introduced to the way to become a great American citizen.You have to learn the language and blend in with the culture but in the meantime you can still be proud of your own heritage. You also have to participate in the political process. To maintain a strong democracy with real change you have to be involved. It is a way to freedom and many Americans have sacrificed their lives in war to preserve their freedom. Last but not least you hav e to give something back. As well as former great immigrants who performed a great service for the nation, new immigrants ought to do the same. There is no limit on what you can achieve.In text three â€Å"Whose American Dream Is It, Anyway? † by Anya Kamenetz we become aware of the fact that Americans are more pessimistic about their lives now than at any time in the past half-century. One of the most fundamental assumptions of the American Dream is the belief that money and ownership of material things will increase. But this is no longer how the situation is. We reached a point where this will not make us any happier. In addition to this fact it seems that the planet can’t take the increasing pollution which follows.We are presented to a prediction that young people will choose a scaled down lifestyle and trade money for time. We need a new American Dream that will restore the social safety net and we need optimism for that. Text four â€Å"Is the American Dream St ill Possible? † by David Wallechinsky comes across the question written in the title. The question is based on the fact that many Americans are struggling financially. Nevertheless they still take responsibility for their own financial destiny. This is showed by an example with a single mother providing for 4 children. 2. Compare language, tone and style in texts 1 and 2.The two texts â€Å"What is the American Dream† and â€Å"Arnold Schwarzenegger Recalls Lesson From 25 Years as a U. S. Citizen – Learn English, Participate in Politics, and Give Back† are very different in their way of influencing the readers. In text one is used a very eloquent language which indicates that we are dealing with a well-educated writer. Another sign of the fact that he is well-educated is the use of difficult words which mean that you have to know synonyms of the words to fully understand the text. The text contains alliterations, a definition and a lot of quotes from well- known authorities.The style of the text is to question some relevant elements but on the other hand it expresses a really certain way of using the words. It makes you give everything an extra thought. The form of the text gives you the impression that the American Dream is attainable for everyone because of the fact that we all have unalienable rights. Contrary to text one text two is more personal. This is indicated by the use of many personal pronouns like â€Å"I† and â€Å"you† in the language. The language is very common which means that everyone can understand. Therefore the text approaches a wider target group.A lot of alliterations are used: â€Å"Honor, heritage†, â€Å"learn language†, and â€Å"died defending†. The text also contains a lot of positive words as freedom and the American Dream. The style of this text is more convincing, personal, and average so everyone can participate and understand, than text two. It is a very obliging an d explanatory tone. It expresses that everyone is worth something great. 3. As it is questioned in text four â€Å"Is the American Dream Still Possible? †: â€Å"Does the dream survive? I believe that everyone has a dream. It might not be the same dream but it is there.We all believe in our dream and hope for it to come true. We do our very best to achieve our dream. We do this with optimism even though times can be tough and the means can be poor. Our dream will show us the way back from tragedy and depression, our dream is where we are headed. The American Dream is a common dream. Many people unite around the fact that they have the same dream. It is a good dream because dreams keep our hopes up and lead us in the right direction. So I find the American dream a positive and good focal point in our lives. If we lose sight of our own dreams we still have the American Dream.It is of great value for those who lost track and need something good to believe in. We can affect the American Dream by making it our own dream. Therefore I believe that the American Dream will survive, it will survive in many of us. When going through rough times is when we realize that the dream is most needed. The dream of something better than you are going through at the time, is what you need. Which dream you have chosen to follow is not the important part. You will be recognized for your effort whether you have chosen the American Dream or another dream, as long as you have a dream. The American Dream The American Dream is the idea that hard work and commitment will result in prosperity and completion of personal goals. It is perceived by many to be an easy way of pursuing and following through on their goals in life. Beginning in the late 1800s immigrants came into the United States looking for employment and the opportunity to succeed. These new opportunities would help lead them towards fulfilling their American Dream. The social class system in America determines the lifestyle and outcome of one’s life.The majority of people who are born into a low social class will continue to be poor throughout the rest of their lives. These people may have a goal to become wealthier, but these goals will never be fulfilled because of their negative ascribed and achieved characteristics. Positive ascribed and achieved characteristics help push people ahead in society and the social class structure. Negative ascribed and achieved characteristics hold people back and force them to overc ome these obstacles in order to succeed. Ascribed and achieved characteristics greatly affect the pursuit the Dream for people. The Great Gatsby, by F.Scott Fitzgerald, and Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck perfectly portray the effect of the social class system and these personal characteristics on the American Dream. Determining one’s success or failure is based upon these characteristics and ultimately determines the social class in America. The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, contains many different circumstances in which these characteristics affect their pursuit of the American Dream. Jay Gatsby, the main character of the book, pursues his dream by becoming wealthy. Born into a poor family, Gatsby tries to earn his dream girls’ love by making money.For five years he makes a great amount of money only to try and impress this woman’s expectations. He faces the problem of not realizing that the past is gone and he cannot get things that are impossible to reach. The book, Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck, shows the effect of social class and personal drive to reach the American Dream. Lennie, who is mentally retarded, faces an obstacle he will never be able to overcome. Although his dream is simple, it will never be reached because of this ascribed characteristic. Another character in the book is Curley’s wife. An ascribed characteristic that she strives from is her beauty.A negative characteristic that holds her back from achieving her dream is her low social class and the fact that she’s a woman. All of these characters have different limitations, but they will all affect their pursuit of the American Dream and result in the same outcome. The Great Gatsby shows the effect of ascribed and achieved characteristics upon the upper class. Jay Gatsby was born into a low social class. He falls in love with Daisy Buchanan who is very wealthy. His desire for love is an impossible feat that he cannot obtain because of his low social class. â€Å"Rich girls do not marry poor boys, Jay Gatsby† (Movie: The Great Gatsby).He pursues his dream by becoming wealthy and hoping that she will accept him as the same social class. A positive ascribed characteristic that will help him is the fact that he is a white male. This helps him because white men have a better chance of getting what they desire over any other gender or race. A negative ascribed characteristic is the fact that he was born into a lower class family. This will hold him back and greatly affect his pursuit of the American Dream. A positive achieved characteristic that Jay Gatsby, is the fact that he is rich after overcoming an extraordinary obstacle of beginning in a lower class position in society.His rise in the social structure from lower to upper-lower only took him five years to obtain. This is an astonishing feat in which he has succeeded and pushed himself ahead in pursuing his dream. â€Å"Almost five years! [†¦] It had gone by her, beyond everything† (Fitzgerald 101). Although he had become extremely wealthy, there is a negative side to his climb in the social structure. His negative achieved characteristic is the way in which he got all his money. The way that he made his fortune was through drugs and illegal actions. He lied to many people he was close to about his past because he knew that the truth would intrude upon his goal. I am the son of some wealthy people in the mid-west [†¦] San Francisco† (Fitzgerald 69). Gatsby figures that the only way to pursue his dream is to lie about his past. Jay Gatsby could never overcome his obstacles so he was unsuccessful in pursuing his American Dream. He focused on obtaining Daisy’s love and undoing the past. â€Å"Gatsby believed in the green light [†¦] tomorrow we will run faster, stretch our arms out further† (Fitzgerald 189). The biggest problem that Gatsby faces is the fact that he cannon overcome his unrealistic purs uit of Daisy.Jay Gatsby’s failure is a full result of pursuing something that he will never get; therefore, his dream cannot be fulfilled. The book, Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck portrays the effect of ascribed and achieved characteristics on people in the lower class. Lennie and George travel together in order to find employment and make a living. This story takes the reader through the pursuit of a dream by two men and what they go through along the way. Their mutual dream is to â€Å"get the jack together and we’re gonna have a little house and a couple of acres and a cow and some pigs and—† (Steinbeck 14).Lennie is a very strong, hardworking man who has a simple dream. The biggest problem he faces is that he is retarded. This negative ascribed characteristic is an impossible obstacle to overcome. A positive ascribed characteristic that somewhat helps him is the fact that he is a white male. A positive achieved characteristic is that he is extreme ly hardworking. â€Å"He’s awright. Just aint bright [†¦] But he can do anything you tell him† (Steinbeck 22). His problem is keeping a job in order to make money and earn a living plays a big role in his pursuit of the American Dream.His friend, George, says â€Å"If I was alone I could live so easy [†¦] I could get a job an’ not have no mess† (Steinbeck 103). His retardation leads to his problem with keeping a job and not being able to function in normal society. Not only did his negative ascribed characteristic of being retarded affect the pursuit of his dream, it ultimately led to his death. These obstacles are impossible to overcome. In result, he cannot follow through with his American Dream. Curley’s wife has extremely high expectations for her American Dream. One positive ascribed characteristic that helped her was her beauty. Her looks helped her throughout life.She was born into a low social class and later on in life she marrie d into the lower class. These are both negative ascribed and achieved characteristics of Curley’s wife. Another negative achieved characteristic of Curley’s wife is that she is a whore. She has the â€Å"eye† for other men. â€Å"She gonna make a mess [†¦] She’s a jail bait all set on the trigger† (Steinbeck 51). Before she got married to Curley she had a chance of obtaining her dream as an actress. She missed out on the opportunity and married Curly, a ranch hand. â€Å"I tell ya I could’a went with shows [†¦] she was breathless with indignation† (Steinbeck 78).When she looks back on it she finds herself to be very disappointed in her decision. She does not approve of Curley because he does not make enough money and is not up to her standards. â€Å"Spends all his time sayin’ what he’s gonna do [†¦] Think I’m gonna stay in that two-by-four house? † (Steinbeck 78) Even though she is in the lo wer social class, she visualizes herself in a higher position above others with whom she associates herself with. If it was not for her low social status I believe that she would have been successful in her dream as an actress.Her beauty took her a long way in life and it helped her become close to her desired goal. Even though her dream was not very realistic, she had many qualities that helped her. The biggest setback that she had was the fact that she was a woman in the lower section of the social structure in America. Her ascribed characteristic of being poor determined the difference between her death and fulfilling her American Dream. Throughout the novels Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck, and The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, many characters portray the effect of personal characteristics upon their pursuit of the American Dream.Jay Gatsby’s personal achievement could not overcome all of the obstacles he had to work around in order to obtain his dream. Even th ough he became rich, the past was over and he could not retrieve Daisy’s love. Lennie had some extremely helpful qualities, but he could not overcome his ascribed characteristic of being retarded. For Lennie, it wasn’t his personal achievement, but instead it was his ascribed characteristics which held him back from his American Dream. Curley’s wife had the desire to become an actress, but instead she married a ranch hand who was in the lower class like herself.Her negative ascribed characteristic of being born into the lower social class held her back from reaching her goal. These characters all contained their own distinguishable problems, but they all had the same outcome. Ascribed and personal characteristics determine the future and outcome of one’s desired goal and for these three characters, this was true. Personal achievement and effort cannot always overcome all obstacles and for many the American Dream is just an impossible destination to reach. â€Å"So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past† (Fitzgerald 189). The American Dream The American Dream is the idea that hard work and commitment will result in prosperity and completion of personal goals. It is perceived by many to be an easy way of pursuing and following through on their goals in life. Beginning in the late 1800s immigrants came into the United States looking for employment and the opportunity to succeed. These new opportunities would help lead them towards fulfilling their American Dream. The social class system in America determines the lifestyle and outcome of one’s life.The majority of people who are born into a low social class will continue to be poor throughout the rest of their lives. These people may have a goal to become wealthier, but these goals will never be fulfilled because of their negative ascribed and achieved characteristics. Positive ascribed and achieved characteristics help push people ahead in society and the social class structure. Negative ascribed and achieved characteristics hold people back and force them to overc ome these obstacles in order to succeed. Ascribed and achieved characteristics greatly affect the pursuit the Dream for people. The Great Gatsby, by F.Scott Fitzgerald, and Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck perfectly portray the effect of the social class system and these personal characteristics on the American Dream. Determining one’s success or failure is based upon these characteristics and ultimately determines the social class in America. The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, contains many different circumstances in which these characteristics affect their pursuit of the American Dream. Jay Gatsby, the main character of the book, pursues his dream by becoming wealthy. Born into a poor family, Gatsby tries to earn his dream girls’ love by making money.For five years he makes a great amount of money only to try and impress this woman’s expectations. He faces the problem of not realizing that the past is gone and he cannot get things that are impossible to reach. The book, Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck, shows the effect of social class and personal drive to reach the American Dream. Lennie, who is mentally retarded, faces an obstacle he will never be able to overcome. Although his dream is simple, it will never be reached because of this ascribed characteristic. Another character in the book is Curley’s wife. An ascribed characteristic that she strives from is her beauty.A negative characteristic that holds her back from achieving her dream is her low social class and the fact that she’s a woman. All of these characters have different limitations, but they will all affect their pursuit of the American Dream and result in the same outcome. The Great Gatsby shows the effect of ascribed and achieved characteristics upon the upper class. Jay Gatsby was born into a low social class. He falls in love with Daisy Buchanan who is very wealthy. His desire for love is an impossible feat that he cannot obtain because of his low social class. â€Å"Rich girls do not marry poor boys, Jay Gatsby† (Movie: The Great Gatsby).He pursues his dream by becoming wealthy and hoping that she will accept him as the same social class. A positive ascribed characteristic that will help him is the fact that he is a white male. This helps him because white men have a better chance of getting what they desire over any other gender or race. A negative ascribed characteristic is the fact that he was born into a lower class family. This will hold him back and greatly affect his pursuit of the American Dream. A positive achieved characteristic that Jay Gatsby, is the fact that he is rich after overcoming an extraordinary obstacle of beginning in a lower class position in society.His rise in the social structure from lower to upper-lower only took him five years to obtain. This is an astonishing feat in which he has succeeded and pushed himself ahead in pursuing his dream. â€Å"Almost five years! [†¦] It had gone by her, beyond everything† (Fitzgerald 101). Although he had become extremely wealthy, there is a negative side to his climb in the social structure. His negative achieved characteristic is the way in which he got all his money. The way that he made his fortune was through drugs and illegal actions. He lied to many people he was close to about his past because he knew that the truth would intrude upon his goal. I am the son of some wealthy people in the mid-west [†¦] San Francisco† (Fitzgerald 69). Gatsby figures that the only way to pursue his dream is to lie about his past. Jay Gatsby could never overcome his obstacles so he was unsuccessful in pursuing his American Dream. He focused on obtaining Daisy’s love and undoing the past. â€Å"Gatsby believed in the green light [†¦] tomorrow we will run faster, stretch our arms out further† (Fitzgerald 189). The biggest problem that Gatsby faces is the fact that he cannon overcome his unrealistic purs uit of Daisy.Jay Gatsby’s failure is a full result of pursuing something that he will never get; therefore, his dream cannot be fulfilled. The book, Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck portrays the effect of ascribed and achieved characteristics on people in the lower class. Lennie and George travel together in order to find employment and make a living. This story takes the reader through the pursuit of a dream by two men and what they go through along the way. Their mutual dream is to â€Å"get the jack together and we’re gonna have a little house and a couple of acres and a cow and some pigs and—† (Steinbeck 14).Lennie is a very strong, hardworking man who has a simple dream. The biggest problem he faces is that he is retarded. This negative ascribed characteristic is an impossible obstacle to overcome. A positive ascribed characteristic that somewhat helps him is the fact that he is a white male. A positive achieved characteristic is that he is extreme ly hardworking. â€Å"He’s awright. Just aint bright [†¦] But he can do anything you tell him† (Steinbeck 22). His problem is keeping a job in order to make money and earn a living plays a big role in his pursuit of the American Dream.His friend, George, says â€Å"If I was alone I could live so easy [†¦] I could get a job an’ not have no mess† (Steinbeck 103). His retardation leads to his problem with keeping a job and not being able to function in normal society. Not only did his negative ascribed characteristic of being retarded affect the pursuit of his dream, it ultimately led to his death. These obstacles are impossible to overcome. In result, he cannot follow through with his American Dream. Curley’s wife has extremely high expectations for her American Dream. One positive ascribed characteristic that helped her was her beauty. Her looks helped her throughout life.She was born into a low social class and later on in life she marrie d into the lower class. These are both negative ascribed and achieved characteristics of Curley’s wife. Another negative achieved characteristic of Curley’s wife is that she is a whore. She has the â€Å"eye† for other men. â€Å"She gonna make a mess [†¦] She’s a jail bait all set on the trigger† (Steinbeck 51). Before she got married to Curley she had a chance of obtaining her dream as an actress. She missed out on the opportunity and married Curly, a ranch hand. â€Å"I tell ya I could’a went with shows [†¦] she was breathless with indignation† (Steinbeck 78).When she looks back on it she finds herself to be very disappointed in her decision. She does not approve of Curley because he does not make enough money and is not up to her standards. â€Å"Spends all his time sayin’ what he’s gonna do [†¦] Think I’m gonna stay in that two-by-four house? † (Steinbeck 78) Even though she is in the lo wer social class, she visualizes herself in a higher position above others with whom she associates herself with. If it was not for her low social status I believe that she would have been successful in her dream as an actress.Her beauty took her a long way in life and it helped her become close to her desired goal. Even though her dream was not very realistic, she had many qualities that helped her. The biggest setback that she had was the fact that she was a woman in the lower section of the social structure in America. Her ascribed characteristic of being poor determined the difference between her death and fulfilling her American Dream. Throughout the novels Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck, and The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, many characters portray the effect of personal characteristics upon their pursuit of the American Dream.Jay Gatsby’s personal achievement could not overcome all of the obstacles he had to work around in order to obtain his dream. Even th ough he became rich, the past was over and he could not retrieve Daisy’s love. Lennie had some extremely helpful qualities, but he could not overcome his ascribed characteristic of being retarded. For Lennie, it wasn’t his personal achievement, but instead it was his ascribed characteristics which held him back from his American Dream. Curley’s wife had the desire to become an actress, but instead she married a ranch hand who was in the lower class like herself.Her negative ascribed characteristic of being born into the lower social class held her back from reaching her goal. These characters all contained their own distinguishable problems, but they all had the same outcome. Ascribed and personal characteristics determine the future and outcome of one’s desired goal and for these three characters, this was true. Personal achievement and effort cannot always overcome all obstacles and for many the American Dream is just an impossible destination to reach. â€Å"So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past† (Fitzgerald 189). The American Dream 1. In text two â€Å"Arnold Schwarzenegger Recalls Lesson From 25 Years as a U. S. Citizen – Learn English, Participate in Politics, and Give Back† by Arnold Schwarzenegger we are presented to the writer himself as an immigrant. He informs us about the responsibilities as an immigrant. As an immigrant you can’t come to America and take the best the nation have to offer without giving something back. You will succeed at the American Dream with hard work and determination and because of the generosity of the American people. We are introduced to the way to become a great American citizen.You have to learn the language and blend in with the culture but in the meantime you can still be proud of your own heritage. You also have to participate in the political process. To maintain a strong democracy with real change you have to be involved. It is a way to freedom and many Americans have sacrificed their lives in war to preserve their freedom. Last but not least you hav e to give something back. As well as former great immigrants who performed a great service for the nation, new immigrants ought to do the same. There is no limit on what you can achieve.In text three â€Å"Whose American Dream Is It, Anyway? † by Anya Kamenetz we become aware of the fact that Americans are more pessimistic about their lives now than at any time in the past half-century. One of the most fundamental assumptions of the American Dream is the belief that money and ownership of material things will increase. But this is no longer how the situation is. We reached a point where this will not make us any happier. In addition to this fact it seems that the planet can’t take the increasing pollution which follows.We are presented to a prediction that young people will choose a scaled down lifestyle and trade money for time. We need a new American Dream that will restore the social safety net and we need optimism for that. Text four â€Å"Is the American Dream St ill Possible? † by David Wallechinsky comes across the question written in the title. The question is based on the fact that many Americans are struggling financially. Nevertheless they still take responsibility for their own financial destiny. This is showed by an example with a single mother providing for 4 children. 2. Compare language, tone and style in texts 1 and 2.The two texts â€Å"What is the American Dream† and â€Å"Arnold Schwarzenegger Recalls Lesson From 25 Years as a U. S. Citizen – Learn English, Participate in Politics, and Give Back† are very different in their way of influencing the readers. In text one is used a very eloquent language which indicates that we are dealing with a well-educated writer. Another sign of the fact that he is well-educated is the use of difficult words which mean that you have to know synonyms of the words to fully understand the text. The text contains alliterations, a definition and a lot of quotes from well- known authorities.The style of the text is to question some relevant elements but on the other hand it expresses a really certain way of using the words. It makes you give everything an extra thought. The form of the text gives you the impression that the American Dream is attainable for everyone because of the fact that we all have unalienable rights. Contrary to text one text two is more personal. This is indicated by the use of many personal pronouns like â€Å"I† and â€Å"you† in the language. The language is very common which means that everyone can understand. Therefore the text approaches a wider target group.A lot of alliterations are used: â€Å"Honor, heritage†, â€Å"learn language†, and â€Å"died defending†. The text also contains a lot of positive words as freedom and the American Dream. The style of this text is more convincing, personal, and average so everyone can participate and understand, than text two. It is a very obliging an d explanatory tone. It expresses that everyone is worth something great. 3. As it is questioned in text four â€Å"Is the American Dream Still Possible? †: â€Å"Does the dream survive? I believe that everyone has a dream. It might not be the same dream but it is there.We all believe in our dream and hope for it to come true. We do our very best to achieve our dream. We do this with optimism even though times can be tough and the means can be poor. Our dream will show us the way back from tragedy and depression, our dream is where we are headed. The American Dream is a common dream. Many people unite around the fact that they have the same dream. It is a good dream because dreams keep our hopes up and lead us in the right direction. So I find the American dream a positive and good focal point in our lives. If we lose sight of our own dreams we still have the American Dream.It is of great value for those who lost track and need something good to believe in. We can affect the American Dream by making it our own dream. Therefore I believe that the American Dream will survive, it will survive in many of us. When going through rough times is when we realize that the dream is most needed. The dream of something better than you are going through at the time, is what you need. Which dream you have chosen to follow is not the important part. You will be recognized for your effort whether you have chosen the American Dream or another dream, as long as you have a dream.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

What would you consider to be expressionist features in Fritz Lang Essays

What would you consider to be expressionist features in Fritz Lang Essays What would you consider to be expressionist features in Fritz Lang Paper What would you consider to be expressionist features in Fritz Lang Paper Expressionism is a style dedicated to distorted camera angles and a harsh contrast of light and shadow (Fabian Ziesing). Often in expressionist works the representation of reality is distorted for the sake of conveying an inner vision(Harvard). Words such as dark demonic twisted haunted and tormented (Elsaesser 2000 p19) are relevant to expressionist cinema. There are many aspects in Fritz Lang.s M that could be considered as expressionist, these are the topic, chiaroscuro (the use of light and shadow), abstraction and essentialisation, duality, the predilection for the studio, the use of objects and space and photography style. One of the key features of expressionist film is its topic. The characteristic topics used in expressionist cinema tend to have a fascination with death, disease, illness, depression, despair and melancholy. There is very often a strong emphasis on psychological problems. The themes used often in expressionist painting and literature are also present in expressionist cinema, the theme of alienation, and of the individual as subject to tyrannical or supernatural forces beyond his or her control (Aitken 2001 p54). Expressionist cinema depicts the unstable, unreality of society at this time. The most crucial themes of the genre are particularly present in M. The murderer Hans Beckert is essentially a normal human being but when he sees a child he is overcome with the compulsion to murder. He tries to fight his compulsion but the forces at work are beyond his control. It is an illness he didnt choose to have and one he cant control Beckert tries to suppress his devious instincts (cyberroach.com) and control himself but fails and his transformation into the murderer is complete. Despair and depression often feature in expressionist cinema and are very apparent in M. When Elsie Beckmann doesnt return home from school Lang. shows the despair of a mother who deep down knows the fate of her daughter. Lang. features the despair of a mother whose little girl does not come home from school (Kracauer 1997 p122). Chiaroscuro is one of the most prominent features of expressionist cinema. In M there is a stark visual contrast between light and shadow, in which forces, shapes and tonalities clash. Lang.s chiaroscuro has produced some poignant images. A classic, perfect example of German expressionism is when the shadow of the murderer appears on the reward poster above the head of Elsie Beckmann, who is bouncing her ball against the poster, which advertises a reward for finding the killer. Elsie Beckmann has no idea of the warning looming above her head. This use of shadow is not purely ornamental it is an effect used to grip the audience, which is hugely successful. The same affect is achieved when the thieves have a conference to discuss what to do about the killer, in this scene an anonymous, abstract image is created (Eisner 1986 p 117). Their shadows appear across the screen as they carry out their conversation. Lang. also creates an indefinite chiaroscuro atmosphere when he uses cigarette smoke floating in the glow of a hanging lamp at the thieves meeting. In this scene the light barely manages to penetrate through the think clouds of smoke, this is also true of the police conference scene in which the smoke gets thicker and thicker distorting the light. As the milieus of the police and the underworld inter-cut, the men participating in these meetings are shown in silhouette accentuating their similarities. Another example is when the murderer looks into a shop window and his face appears to be framed in the light, which was reflected from the knives displayed there. This lighting effect separates and isolates Hans Beckert from the rest of the world by his inhuman urges. In one on the final scenes when the murderer is finally caught Lang. freezes him by using one single beam of light creating an image reminiscent of a deer caught in the headlights of a car. The use of objects and space are a very expressionistic feature. In the scene where Elsie is murdered the camera cuts from where Elsie is to where she isnt using inanimate objects and empty spaces to make her fate more horrifying. When Elsies mother is desperately calling her Lang. uses a series of still life shots in succession. These are the empty and rather sinister looking spiral staircase with its shadows like prison bars, the empty and dismal courtyard, the attic where the washing hangs, Elsies seat at the dinner table, to her ball rolling from the undergrowth and her balloon with its string entangled in the telegraph cables. When the moving camera freezes on these objects there is no doubt in anyones mind about what has happened to Elsie inanimate objects stand in for an absent and violently silenced person (Kaes 2000 p 13). Another feature, which is considered to be expressionist, is the tendency towards abstraction and essentialisation. The expressionist tends to place more importance on mental images than on real things; this method provides full emotional impact without sickening the audience. We hear the murderer talking to Elsie Beckmann and buying her a balloon to win her confidence. In the next scene we see Elsies ball roll into the frame and her balloon caught in the telegraph cables. Although we do not witness Elsies murder we have no doubt about Elsies fate (Kaes 2000 pp 13-14). Expressionist film also has a tendency towards duality. Very often there is a character that appears harmless but actually has a more morbid counterpart much like the creepily pitiable child murderer in M (Elsaesser 2000 p 19). The murderer in M is a seemingly inconspicuous man and so that he can be recognised he must be branded with the chalk sign of the letter m on his shoulder. He has a child like innocence and vulnerability, which is combined with his compulsion to murder, which creates a character who is worryingly human. There are a number of double images or double reflections in M, which depict a dark side, the disorder of society and the murderous impulses of Hans Beckert. In an early scene in the film we see the murderer looking at his reflection in a mirror attempting to seek out the madman that lives within him. In one scene we see him looking in a shop window calmly eating an apple when he sees a young girls reflection in the shop window, he is suddenly mesmerised and his eyes begin to bulge and he begins to break out in a sweat. This shows Hans Beckerts split personality in M. In this same scene he sees his own reflection, here the normal man on the street becomes a menacing reflection of himself. Later, the murderer sees himself in another mirror image in which he discovers he has been found out when he sees the letter m on his back. Just as the audience begins to feel some kind of pity and sympathy for the killer his darker side is shown in the reflected images. The stylisation of the set and acting can be identified with expressionism. In expressionist cinema there is a predilection for filming in the studio as opposed to the street and expressionism is known for the use of eccentric sets. In M when the police raid the allotment gardens the pictorial composition is emphasised (Eisner 1986 p116). In the most famous German expressionist film The Cabinet of Dr Caligari the sets are extremely artificial and designed specifically to look that way. Some of the acting in M is highly gesticulated particularly in the scene where the bald man is having dinner in a club and is accused of having an interest in young girls. In this scene the acting is very stylised and slightly exaggerated creating a comedic effect. The photography style used in M is extremely expressionistic. Lang. uses odd camera angles to create a hypnotic and nightmarish world. In the very first scene, we see the children are playing a game of elimination, in which the next child out is essentially the next child to be murdered. In this scene the camera hovers above not singling out any of the children by using a close up shot, it simply records the process of elimination in this scene the camera separates the mothers from their children with walls, closed doors and railings. The camera moves unevenly attempting to draw attention to itself. The camera then cuts to the staircase where it comments and investigates the pregnant woman who is coming up the stairs. When Elsie is murdered the camera freezes on Elsies empty chair, this shot was taken from above in true expressionist style. Another example is when the girl on the street asked a man for the time and the public immediately views him with suspicion. Lang. makes excellent use of camera angles to show the persecution of this man; he is shot from a high angle and his accusers from a low angle accentuating the way they tower over him. Fritz Langs. M is a masterpiece of low keyed Expressionism (www.nyfavideo.com) Although M contains some of the key features of the expressionist movement it is not considered as one of the main films of the movement only a small number of German films can be described as thoroughgoing expressionist works (www.courses.fas.harvard.edu) Fritz Langs. M is most certainly influenced by expressionism. The film evokes a sense of doom and despair and features the paranoid pathology of the individual who has no control over his actions. This is a typical topic of expressionist cinema. Hans Berkert is a man who is possessed of some demon that has driven him beyond the borders of ordinary human behaviour (Eisner 1986 p111) and as a result he is dehumanised by society in his final scene. Even though it is clear that his problems are psychological and cannot be controlled. The most conscious effort of expressionism being adapted for German cinema was for The Cabinet of Dr Caligari (1920) by Robert Wiene. The film was made to look alien and unreal and followed a doctor who committed murder through a monster whose will he controlled. Expressionism delves into the landscape of an unbalanced mind. In M the topic is focused on split personality, which is one of the themes more commonly associated with nineteenth century romanticism. It has been suggested that the sequence at the beggars exchange also contained elements of romanticism. Expressionism uses high angle shots to record states of fear, doubt and anxiety thus creating a frighteningly influenced world. The common features of expressionism were influential in the making of Fritz Langs M. Some suggest that theres no movie thats more German , Expressionist or noir than Fritz Langs M (Morris 2000 p1).However, by many M is not considered to be one of the landmark films of the era.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Bernstein and Beethoven

Bernstein and Beethoven Free Online Research Papers A product of his times.that seems like such a clichà © way of telling a story – but, yes! A product of The Age of Enlightenment, Beethoven was all about some revolution. Through his free and fierce nature, he wrenched music out of the 18th century and into the next Stravinsky would do the same thing a century later. What Beethoven did makes him if not the last of the Classicists then arguably the first of the Romantics. His adventures in disregarding 18th-century structure, requirements and protocol marked his music and his daily life, and in both areas he achieved a virtually complete freedom of expression. He was like Elvis Presley of the symphonyonly he never wiggled his crotch on Ed Sullivan. The idea of the authority of a composer and that his word was considered definitive were some of the common thoughts during that age. The creative mind was respected, with the composer an object of reverence. This was the Romantic view. Mozart and Haydn were definitely influences on Beethovens work. Beethovens â€Å"Quintet for piano and winds† is said to bear a resemblance to Mozart and his version, only he Beethovened it up. He also explored new directions and gradually expanded the scope of his work. Some important pieces from the man are the First and Second symphonies, the first two piano concertos, and the famous Pathetique sonata. Sources show Beethovens disdain for authority, and for social rank (whats cool about this is how Bernstein captures that exact topic in West Side Story – at least I thought that was pretty cool). He stopped performing at the piano and called a bitch out if the audience chatted amongst themselves, or afforded him less than their full attention. At parties, he refused to perform if suddenly called upon to do so. Eventually, after many confrontations, the Archduke Rudolph decreed that the usual rules of court etiquette did not apply to Beethoven. He was a rebel just like The Jets. Many later composers of the Romantic period and beyond were influenced specifically by Beethovens Ninth Symphony. The famous choral finale is Beethovens musical representation of Universal Brotherhood. Wagner completed a piano arrangement of Beethovens 9th symphony, an important theme in the finale of Johannes Brahms Symphony #1 is related to the Ode to Joy or â€Å"Ode to Freedom† or any eventual â€Å"Ode tofill in the blank† theme. Bernstein had a pretty exuberant conducting style. He actually had a pretty â€Å"fuck you all who dont like it† kinda style. I like this man very much. He strayed far from classic conducting techniques, using his whole body to get the best out of his orchestra, and had evident fun doing so. Exploring his output, one finds the famous and obscure works that both are reflective of their times and somehow preserve and encapsulate them. Bernstein also used the podium as a way to popularize the music he loved. In 1958, he began a series of televised Young Peoples Concerts that brought symphonic music into the homes of Americans. He was like â€Å"Check this shit out, kids!† But now lets move on to some West Side Story! In West Side Story the sung text is crucial to the telling of the story. When the music is conveying certain emotions there can only be language left to really hit it home to the listener. The lyrical beauty in love ballads, the language of the characters in songs by street gangs and ethnic characters and the poetry of the lyrics truly help to take the music a step further. Bernstein was very effective in bringing modern society and the 20th century to stories and musical themes that were familiar or previously explored. He added his own flair to classical pieces as well as giving a modern twist to age old tales for the current times. As far as the â€Å"hope dies last† and â€Å"despair does not rule† ideology – I think the ideas presented in West Side Story and Beethovens 9th are similar in the fact that they deal with brotherhood of man. The end of West Side Story touches on the idea that the two different cultures are going to work as brothers from now on and not enemies, Beethovens entire purpose of his symphony is to promote that idea of a coming together peacefully. When Beethoven premiered his symphony in Vienna he received five ovations. At that time, it was customary that the Imperial couple be greeted with three ovations when they entered the hall. The fact that five ovations were received by a private person who was not even employed by the state, and moreover, was a musician, was in itself considered almost indecent. Police agents present at the concert had to break off this spontaneous explosion of ovations. This certainly tells of the class that musicians were put into at the time and how private people were looked at. It makes the ideas Beethoven was presenting all the more controversial and liberal. If I were Beethovenand could hearI would have been like â€Å"Please, please! Lets have at least one more round of applause for the Imperial couplethen we can return to me!!!† I would have been blackballed. Bernstein tackled quite the liberal idea of brotherhood in his musical. He addressed issues including rebellion from authority, troubled youth, poverty and racism. Juvenile delinquency is seen as an ailment of society: No one wants a fella with a social disease! It certainly was teeming with American ideas toward immigrants. At the time nothing like this show had ever been produced with its raucous dance numbers and brutal subject matter. I would imagine that if, in the end, you feel the urge for Tony and Maria to be together – the idea that love can transcend all racial boundaries may even affect people that let themselves sit through shows about gay relationships as well. I think shows like West Side Story pave the way for further exploration of topics concerning tolerance and acceptance. If he were alive today I am sure that Lenny would bust it out with some amazing gay story like that since he was definitely no stranger to some boys in his life. Gotta love him! The idea of these pieces being program music made me sit on the fence for a moment. But, although there may not be text for the audience to read in West Side Story to some of the instrumental moments, I do think that those moments tell a story. When The Jets are dancing to the familiar theme of their song – the music definitely represents what is going on and the feeling that is being conveyed without the lyrics. Beethovens 9th was primarily instrumental until the final movement, so I would say that his piece could count if there were program notes given to the audience to explain the earlier movements. It is like the way Vivaldis Four Seasons captures the idea of each of the times of year or the way Berliozs Symphonie Fantastique captures the idea of killing the one you love and burning in hell for it, the music in Beethovens symphony and West Side Story – respectively capture a feeling or an idea. They certainly perform the same function that film scores do now â⠂¬â€œ they pull emotions out of you while you are listening to the story and make you feel it on a much deeper level than words alone could ever do. The bottom line for me is that they both definitely tell a story and are conveying a message to the audience. I think that lends them the right to be called program music. Both men certainly use their music to convey a variety of emotions and help to really move their message and ideas forward. Beethoven utilized cyclical structure in his symphony to link the movements thematically. Bernstein did the same with his characters and events – you would hear lilting music with the themes of â€Å"Somewhere† or â€Å"Maria† when the two lovers were thinking of each other, within close parameters of one another or holding each other. The Jets and the fighting scenes were underscored by the themes that were featured in â€Å"The Jet Song† and â€Å"Dance at the Gym† similar themes can be heard in both compositions and are identifiable with those characters. Beethoven incorporated a Turkish march in his final movement to represent a military aspect and war, I believe he was talking about what the present held and then moves onto the idea with voices soaring – that all men can be brothers. It is very much like the end o f West Side Story. Bernstein uses frenetic percussion and latin styles to create his mambo theme and the energetic â€Å"America† has a mexican cha-cha-cha feel to it like a mariachi song. He uses themes like Beethoven does in his movements to tie his musical theme together. Bernstein assigns musical themes to characters the way Beethoven returns to them in each of his movements. Like I said earlier – The Jets have similar themes when they are causing a scene – even when they are harassing Anita in the store the music is very disjointed and has elements of the musical themes underscoring their rumble with The Sharks and their other songs as well. Bernstein uses immediate and quick tempo with strings and clashing percussion in â€Å"Tonight (Ensemble)† that sounds foreboding – its almost like the strings in â€Å"Jaws† and there are maracas shaking as well to help illustrate who they are referring to (The Sharks). When Tony and Maria begin to sing, the strings become soft and soaring and feel hopeful. They really soar when Maria begins to sing her part – then immediately they are loud and frenzied when The Jets begin their parts again. When Tony sings â€Å"Somethings Coming† the strings are excited yet soft as he begins to talk about this amazingly great feeling he has. Beethoven really uses strings and brass to produce this feeling of duty almost, at least thats what I hear when the brass gets loud and the strings come under softly and then begin to crescendo before the brass takes over. It sounds very regal and then gets frenetic like The Jets songs. But that is only how it begins. That â€Å"Bah-Bah-Bah-Dum!† that occurs with the brass gives me the idea of duty to your country, military men standing at attention and those sort of ideas. Its like the loyalty the gangs feel to one another and their â€Å"war† in West Side Story. Beethoven and his â€Å"Bah-Bah-Bahs† that happen later tend to ease up a lot – the â€Å"Bah-Dum!† is replaced by another quick â€Å"Bah† instead. Im totally explaining this like I should be fingerpainting and writing this in crayon. The strings get nice and quiet and soothing towards the end – before the chorus busts it down. The chorus starts out kind of sounding stern t o me. Then when the women join it isnt so â€Å"military† like. It begins to take on a happier tone. Then its just all sorts of amazing and breathtaking. The strings get sweet and low (no pun intended) and then the voices come in much quieter and begin to slowly crescendo and its like â€Å"Heeey! Whats up, now? Go on witcha baaad self!† The part I think is awesome is when the voices start singing in the style that reminds me of the English madrigal – its like â€Å"Fair Phyllis† and it is a complete surprise when it just happens out of nowhere – there are the sweeping moments, the regal sounding moments and then suddenly there is the overlapping texture. He creates this feeling of many emotions happening with the differing dynamics much like Bernstein creates so many emotions with the texture of overlapping in â€Å"Tonight (Ensemble)† and his amazing rhythms. To decide which composition is more artistically powerful – I immediately think of Leonard Bernstein and his West Side Story. Not only because the end made me cry like a little bitch, but because there are so many themes and rhythms being explored to tell this age old story that is just as relevant today as it was then and in times before and it will continue to be relevant I am sure of that. It is a lot more distinct to me to see what Lenny was doing with his story, characters, moods and emotions than it was for me to pick things out of Beethovens 9th. West Side Story affected me more on an emotional level. I can identify with the â€Å"love that is not accepted by the majority† theme – and holy shit did I ever have to keep myself from sobbing at the end. I kept saying â€Å"Its not real! Natalie Wood isnt even Puerto Rican! Shes Russian for Christs sake!† I was literally saying these things in my head so I wouldnt bawl my eyes out when she started to s ing â€Å"Somewhere† without accompaniment (which by the way is another way that Lenny used just a single voice to make the audience feel stripped and vulnerable – and it worked – well!). I am just simply in love with Bernsteins music in West Side Story. Research Papers on Bernstein and BeethovenHip-Hop is ArtThe Masque of the Red Death Room meaningsWhere Wild and West MeetAnalysis Of A Cosmetics Advertisement19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraMind TravelMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductQuebec and CanadaThe Spring and AutumnHarry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Essay

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Avogadros Law Example Problem

Avogadros Law Example Problem Avogadros gas law states the volume of a gas is proportional to the number of moles of gas present when the temperature and pressure are held constant. This example problem demonstrates how to use Avogadros law to determine the volume of a gas when more gas is added to the system. Avogadro's Law Equation Before you can solve any problem regarding Avogadros gas law, its important to review the equation for this law. There are a few ways to write this  gas law, which is a mathematical relation. It may be stated: k V/n Here, k is a proportionality constant, V is the volume of a gas, and n is the number of moles of a gas. Avogadros law also means the ideal gas constant is the same value for all gases, so: constant p1V1/T1n1   P2V2/T2n2V1/n1   V2/n2V​1n2   V2n1 where p is pressure of a gas, V is volume, T is temperature, and n is number of moles. Avogadro's Law Problem A 6.0 L sample at 25 °C and 2.00 atm of pressure contains 0.5 mole of a gas. If an additional 0.25 mole of gas at the same pressure and temperature are added, what is the final total volume of the gas? Solution First, express Avogadros law by its  formula: Vi/ni Vf/nfwhereVi initial volumeni initial number of molesVf final volumenf final number of moles For this example, Vi 6.0 L and ni 0.5 mole. When 0.25 mole is added: nf ni 0.25 molenf 0.5 mole 0.25 molenf 0.75 mole The only variable remaining is the final volume. Vi/ni Vf/nf Solve for Vf Vf ​ Vinf/niV​f (6.0 L x 0.75 mole)/0.5 moleVf 4.5 L/0.5 Vf 9 L Check to see if the answer makes sense. You would expect the volume to increase if more gas is added. Is the final volume greater than the initial volume? Yes. Doing this check is useful because it is easy to put the initial number of moles in the numerator and the final number of moles in the denominator. If this had happened, the final volume answer would have been smaller than the initial volume. Thus, the final volume of the gas is 9.0 Notes Regarding Avogadro's Law Unlike Avogadros number, Avogadros law was actually proposed by   Amedeo Avogadro. In 1811, he hypothesized two samples of an ideal gas with the same volume and at the same pressure and temperature contained the same number of molecules.Avogadros law is also called Avogadros principle or Avogadros hypothesis.Like the other ideal gas laws, Avogadros law only approximates the behavior of real gases. Under conditions of high temperature or pressure, the law is inaccurate. The relation works best for gases held at low pressure and ordinary temperatures. Also, smaller gas particles- helium, hydrogen, and nitrogen- yield better results than larger molecules, which are more likely to interact with each other.Another mathematical relation used to express Avogadros law is: V/n k Here, V is the volume, n is the number of moles of the gas, and k is the proportionality constant. Its important to note this means the ideal gas constant is the same for all gases.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Organisational Behaviour Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Organisational Behaviour - Essay Example There is always a high demand for people having good communication skills and those professionals who are young and adaptive to change. To study the demographic factors is vital for a manger as it helps him in selecting the best person for the job. In job interviews, managers are mostly looking for confident candidates and also those candidates that have good interpersonal and good communication skills. These types of employees tend to prove themselves highly valuable to the firm. The abilities and skills of a person highly influence his behaviour and performance. If your skills and abilities match the requirements of the job, you are likely to perform better. This is so because one knows the job description requirements and can perform well accordingly. The manager plays a key role when matching the job requirements with the skills and abilities of the employees. This is crucial as matching skills and abilities will allow the desired results to be achieved by the firm. Perception is a process by which sensory impressions are organised and interpreted by an individual in order to give meaning to whatever is around him. The perception of a person can be influenced by many factors. For managers it is really important to create a work environment that is favourable and that it is positively perceived by the employees. If the employees perceive it positively, it will improve their performance and overall, the firm will become productive and profitable. Attitude is the propensity to react positively or negatively towards certain things, people or circumstances. The supervisor of a company should study the factors related to employment to create a positive work environment so that workers are encouraged to form a favourable attitude towards their particular jobs. The variables such as family, society, traditions and culture, friends and organisational characteristics affect the development and attitude of the employees. The workers can perform efficiently if they for m a better attitude in the workplace. Employees also need to work upon having a good work life balance so that they can achieve their targets successfully without having pressure from anyone side of professional work or personal life. Personality is the study of the unique characteristics of an individual, the relations between these individuals and how they alter and change with respect to society and changing circumstances. The numerous dynamics that affect the personality of a person are inheritance, family, friends, society, culture and other circumstances. This shows that individuals are different when working in an organisation and their personality changes along with it. Personality can be considered as the most difficult part of an individual, and this largely affects the behaviour of a human being. Studying the personality characteristics of an individual is a good opportunity to comprehend them. It motivates them to complete the organisational goal in an efficient manner. Diverse environmental variables produce different reactions, and studying these reactions is very crucial for the organisation. By studying these responses certain types of behaviours that are demanded by organisations are discovered and learnt. Examples of these behaviours are

Friday, October 18, 2019

The Role of Tracking in American Schools Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

The Role of Tracking in American Schools - Essay Example He further explains that tracking may take place within a specific grade, as well as extend to grade levels. To illustrate the former, Loveless talks about eight graders who can hardly read and students who enjoy Shakespeare plays being placed in different English classes. The latter may be well illustrated by the practice of students’ assignment to math courses starting with fundamentals and ending with abstraction of calculus (Loveless, 1999, p. 1). Theoretically, the purpose of this practice is grounded on the belief that tracking promotes learning thanks to its provision of a good fit between the instruction level and needs of students regarding their learning. The tracking theory asserts that tracking allows tailoring the instruction according to students’ ability levels (Hallinan, 1999, p.79). This is thought to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the overall instructional process. These claims, however, have been widely criticized by opponents of tracking , who mention a number of negative effects of tracking on students’ academic, social and emotional development, thus questioning the relevance of this practice to the school setting. For example, Jenny Oakes, a professor from University of California at Los Angeles, believes that among other aspects, tracking practice is related to racial segregation in modern American school (Oakes, 1994, p.91). My goal in this paper is to discuss the role of tracking in modern American school. To achieve my goal, I have divided the essay into four parts. The first one aims at highlighting the historical background of tracking in American schools. The second section discusses the positive effects of tracking on school practice, focusing on the proponents’ views regarding this phenomenon. The third part of this paper looks into criticism of tracking by its opponents and possible negative effects tracking has on the school practice. Finally, I conclude my paper with the fourth part whic h sums up the role of tracking within an American school. Historical Background of Tracking The history of tracking within American school system can be traced back to the turn of the 20th century. Since that time, believes Oaks, schools have used tracking â€Å"to address social, personal, and workforce needs, as well as cognitive ones.† (Oakes, 1994, p. 86). In Rubin’s research â€Å"Detracking in Context: How Local Constructions of Ability Complicate Equity-Geared Reform†, it is stated that tracking with a variety of its modifications has been one of the major organizing practices typical for American public schools for nearly a century (Rubin, 2008). Tracking started to come into use at the beginning of the 20th century when G.Stanley Hall’s notions about the inclinations and emotional peculiarities of adolescents were taken as the theoretical ground for implementing a non-scholarly curriculum at American school. At the same time, at the outset of the previous century schools were known to enroll lots of immigrant kids.In this respect, the statement made by Lewis Terman should be mentioned that despite the fact immigrant pupils could not be expected to develop mental abilities that allowed mastering abstractions, they could be enrolled to separate classes, which might help them become well-qualified workers. This is how tracking became a means of sorting out children who were noticed to have limited preparation or

Summative Assessment Project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Summative Assessment Project - Essay Example Notably, in some countries government regulates the water industries; however, the services of such companies are largely under private companies that are defined within a specific geographical space. Water companies are usually owned differently including by the local government, national government, private ownership, and co-operative. The local government ownership is the commonly structure of ownership known worldwide. The local governments often operate its systems through municipal companies or departments, or inter municipal companies. The local government outsourcing water management from private sectors has increase since 1990 (Pollard, 2008). In the United States, water companies are being managed by state governments that are equally operates as local government. Nonetheless, these companies are obligated to integrate water systems. In other words, they are required to supply, treat wastewater, and ensure sanitation in sewerage systems (Water quality †¦, 2001). Therefore, the water ownership structure must ensure that the water under supply meets water quality standards as well as the environmental standards that relate to wastewater. In the United States, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates the standards set for drinking water. It standards for the pollution control have been developed jointly by the state environmental agencies and the EPA pursuant to clean water act (NATO Advanced Research †¦, at el., 2009). Despite the set standards and regulation set for water companies, these companies are still facing immense risks ranging from water resources management, rising cost, and changing population among others. Water and wastewater resources are facing numerous challenges across New Jersey as well as other parts of the country. The common challenges that are experienced in the