Thursday, October 3, 2019
World Trade bombing Essay Example for Free
World Trade bombing Essay The battle against terrorism has been centered on the Middle East where top terrorist group Al Qaeda Ã¢â¬â perpetrators of the World Trade bombing Ã¢â¬â has been formed and operated under Osama Bin LadenÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership. Evidences such as videotapes of Al Qaeda members being trained in the camps as well as reading scriptures from the Quran have been seen by the public concluding a message that this a group acting in the name of religion, on behalf of Islam and of their God, Allah. Terrorist groups have risen out of different events in history where Muslims consistently suffered under the hands of their western conquerors. One of these events is the declaration of the Israeli state displacing a lot of Muslim Palestinians, thus, resulting into a full blown civil war which still occurs today. The alliance of the powerful United States with the Israeli Jews and the invasion of the said country to Afghanistan (OsamaÃ¢â¬â¢s home country), and Iraq for oil purposes; urged a call for all Muslims to fight against the United States and its allies. Allah, the God of Islam, is seen as a god that does not tolerate injustice and seen as a leader who is the protector of the oppressed and punish non-believers. Seeing the damages that the war in Israel and in Afghanistan brought to the Muslim, Osama has taken the lead in calling for the Muslim people to uphold AllahÃ¢â¬â¢s laws and fight off the injustice deeds of the powerful conquerors. His message boxed the compass: kick out the foreign armies occupying Muslim lands, defend the pure poor from the corrupt rich, upend the high and mighty, inspire youth by oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own selflessnessÃ¢â¬ ¦His effrontery against the odds acted as a powerful magnet. (Randal, 2005, p. 46) By carrying out the trait of Allah as the warrior of the oppressed people, the message of Osama and the success of the bombings in Lebanon strengthen the aim to form terrorist factions in order to spread Islam and abolish all kinds of religions. Martyrdom The goal of fighting off non-Islamic factions has instilled an image of a ruthless oppressor due to the MuslimsÃ¢â¬â¢ experience under the hands of western groups that has a completely different belief from them. As terrorist groups have been established, members are always being reminded about their purpose through indoctrination. Leaders of the group would often read the scriptures from the Quran, retells the heroic acts of the Islamic wars; and most importantly if they are to prepare for a suicide mission, the leaders reminds them AllahÃ¢â¬â¢s will of self-sacrifice and the rewards that awaits them in paradise after death (Bongar, Brown, Beutler, Bongar, Zimbardo, 2007, p. 110). Martyrdom is not a duty to be followed, it is embraced by the members wholeheartedly and waiting for it with anticipation. The act of a suicide attack is a manifestation of the martyrdom. For the Muslim terrorists, achieving martyrdom by means of suicide is a way of cleansing the sins and a form of reward. Mortal life is a life encompassed with sin. From the Christian perspective, people are destined to either go to heaven or to hell depending on the sins that have been committed and repented during his or her mortal life. On the other hand, the Islam teaches that through martyrdom, a sinner can redeem himself or herself from the sins that have been done. Participating in a suicide mission is a method to reach self-purification and to be clean from all the sins which will make an individual worthy of the eternal paradise (Pedahzur, 2005, p. 37). Aside from the promise of self-redemption, martyrdom is also use to pose as a reward not just the after-life paradise with Allah but also for family members of the terrorist. One such reward can include a change in the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s social status (Pedahzur, p.37) where a terrorist coming from the lowest class will be granted a heroic honor for his or her death thus, earning social acceptance and a higher lifestyle from the accumulated financial or material compensation. The family of a martyr terrorist is given a Ã¢â¬Å"certificate of martyrdomÃ¢â¬ which they can show to avail of privileges in buying food, clothing, and gaining access to social events (Reuter Ragg-Kirkby, 2004, p. 45). Martyrdom is encompassed by the Islamic belief system of Ã¢â¬ËjihadÃ¢â¬â¢ where the very word has been defined as Ã¢â¬ËstruggleÃ¢â¬â¢ (Habeck, 2006, p. 4). This definition within the context of martyrdom can be said that by means of suicide, to momentarily struggle the pain of inflicting pain or death to the physical body is the path towards eternal happiness. It is a motivation to conclude someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life which serves a purpose for the greater good of the Muslim people and for bringing Islam to the top of political power. The Other Purpose of Suicide Terrorism Aside from the strong ideology provided by religion, terrorist groups opted to perform suicide attacks because of practical reasons. Suicide Terrorism has basically became a trend in the new millennium when it comes to attacking opponents. Bruce Hoffman (who specialized in terrorism research stated that suicide attacks are low cost, effective, and cause public attraction (cited in Purpura, 2007, p. 56). Since most of the terrorist factions came from the poverty-stricken countries, if an organization is not supported by an independent financer, suicide attack is a priority to use. Most of the bombs that are attached to the suicide bomber are custom made out of inexpensive materials and to perform a suicide attack, it takes little training since the bomber mixed anonymously with the ordinary citizens (Nikonov, 2007, p.30). Another important aspect of the reference in using suicide attacks, it is because due to the fact that it cost little money and training but it guarantee media coverage (Purpura, p. 56). To be publicized is an essential part so that the group can relay its message to the enemies and at the same time to gain recognition. Recognition in a sense that, when a group member committed a suicide attack it legitimizes the group. The death of a member contributes to the sense of legitimacy and dramatic community investment in a cause. The message is that there is no going back. Some groups engage in glorification of the act, deliberately hyping a Ã¢â¬Å"culture of martyrdomÃ¢â¬ lionizing the attacker. This celebrity can be powerfully attractive to potential recruits, and with the suicide often comes greater general attention as well to the motivation for the act. (Linden, 2003, p. 83) Lastly perhaps the most important practical usage of suicide attack is that upon the death of the bomber, it is already a clean break. Just like Hoffman stated that there is no need for an escape plan (Purpura, p. 56) and the information with regards to the terrorist organization is left as a mystery. Impact of Suicide Attack to Society Since most of the suicide attackers are left unknown, some researchers have estimated profile of suicide bomber. This includes recruits which have an age range from 16-23 years old comprised of mostly single male while female attackers only made up of a small number; and normally members come from different social classes, with the educated leading the faction (Bongar, et al. , p. 106). It is a pattern that those who have attained education are the ones who organized the group into trainings and launching terrorist activities. From the preceding discussion, the well-publicized feedback that the suicide terrorism receives entails to induce fear not just to its specific targets but to the whole sector of the community. Unlike the conventional wars of the past, the soldiers are the ones who are assured of being killed but for suicide terrorism, it encapsulates the whole society in danger. The unknown identity of the attackers and the massive casualties it caused make people revel into a never ending insecurity. The trust within the structure of the society disappears as anyone can be the victim and anyone can be the suspect. According to Christopher Reuter and Helena Ragg-Kirkby (2004): Suicide attacks affect us profoundly and powerfully. They remind us that there are people who consider their struggle Ã¢â¬â whatever the cause Ã¢â¬â to be more important than their own lives. They annihilate the entire logic of power, since no credible threat can be made against someone who has no desire to survive. (p. 2) This form of terrorism of leaves the society in paralyzed fear with no direction of counter measures to fight against it. It is likened to a battle where one is fully armed however; darkness blinded the vision to properly defeat it. Suicide terrorism does not choose its victims any longer. The main concern refers to how huge it inflicts damage and to convey its power by materializing fear in the form of bloodshed. Perhaps this is the biggest challenge that the modern generation may have encounter, the unknown face of terror is one hard to beat. References Battin, M. P. (2005). Ending Life. New York: Oxford University Press. Bongar, B. M. , Bongar, B. , Brown, L. M. , Beutler, L. E. , Zimbardo, P. G. (2007). Psychology of Terrorism. New York: Oxford University Press.